Effect of Acid Modification and Pre-gelatinization Methods on Physicochemical Properties of Water Chestnut Flour

Main Article Content

Wijitra Liaotrakoon
Vachiraya liaotrakoon


The objective of this research was to study the effect of modification methods by acid modification and pre-gelatinization on physicochemical, pasting properties and freeze-thaw stability of water chestnut flours. The water chestnut was modified with hydrochloric acid solution, pre-gelatinized with moist-heating, and prepared as native starch using sodium hydroxide solution. It was found that the modification methods had a significant effect on physicochemical, pasting and freeze-thaw stability properties of modified water chestnut flours. The protein, carbohydrate, and amylose contents of acid-modified water chestnut flour was lower than the pre-gelatinized flour, whereas the swelling power and solubility of pre-gelatinized water chestnut flour were higher than the acid-modified flour and native starch, respectively (p<0.05). In addition, the peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and setback values, of acid-modified water chestnut flour were lower than the pre-gelatinized flour and native starch, respectively (p<0.05). The acid-modified water chestnut flour shown no syneresis in all 5 cycles of freezing and thawing at 30, 60 and 90 °C. Therefore, the modified water chestnut flour has the potential to be used in food industry.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Liaotrakoon ว., & liaotrakoon ว. (2020). Effect of Acid Modification and Pre-gelatinization Methods on Physicochemical Properties of Water Chestnut Flour. Journal of Food Technology, Siam University, 15(2), 82–95. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JFTSU/article/view/240471
บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)


Ashogbon, A.O. and Akintayo, E.T. (2014). Recent trend in the physical and chemical modification of starches from different botanical sources: A review. Starch/Stärke. 66: 41-57.

Majzoobi, M., Radi, M., Farahnaky, A., Jamalian. J., Tongdang, T. and Mesbahi, G.H. (2011). Physiochemical properties of pre-gelatinized wheat starch produced by a twin drum driver. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology. 13(2): 193-202.

Wijesinghe, J.A.A.C., Wicramasinghe, I. and Saranandha, K.H. (2016). Effect of different modification methods on gelatinization properties and amylose content of kithul (Caryota urens) flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 15: 312-318.

Wijesinghe, J.A.A.C., Wicramasinghe, I. and Saranandha, K.H. (2015). Effect of modification methods on gelatinization properties and colour attributes of kithul (Caryota urens) flour. International Journal of Science and Research. 4(10): 2189-2192.

Chatpapamon, C., Puncha-arnon, S. and Uttapap, D. (2016). Effect of heat-moisture treatment on properties and structure of A- and B-crystalline type starches. KMUTT Research and Development Journal. 39(2): 257-268.

Saartrat, S., Uttapap, D., Puttanlek, C. and Rungsardthong, V. (2015). Edible canna (Canna edulis) starch modified by acetylation. KMUTT Research and Development Journal. 28(1): 87-102.

Tobias, J.R., Castro, I.J.L., Peñarubia, O.R., Adona, C.E. and Castante, R.B. (2008). Physicochemical and functional properties determination of flour, unmodified starch and acid-modified starch of Philippine-grown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). International Food Research Journal. 25(6): 2640-2649.

Niyomwit, B. (2007). Water chestnut: the local plant food. Food Journal. 37(4): 315-317.

Prafulla, A., Amita, D., Shirishkumar, A. and Bhaskar, V.H. (2014). Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A review on nutritional and pharmacological aspects. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. 959830: 1-13.

Liaotrakoon, V. and Liaotrakoon, W. (2017). Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of water chestnut. Proceeding of the 8th RSPG Researchers Club Conference, Thai Resources: Enormous Potential to be Seen, pp 251-264. November 29-December 1, 2016. Saraburi. Thailand.

Liaotrakoon, W. and Liaotrakoon, V. (2020). Effect of milling methods on physicochemical, pasting properties and syneresis of water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) flour. Thai Journal of Science and Technology. 9(2): 251-264.

Adebowal, K.O. and Lawal, O.S. (2002). Effect of annealing and heat moisture conditioning on the physicochemical characteristics of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranean) starch. Nahrung/ Food. 46: 311-316.

Sirivongpaisal, P. (2008). Structure and functional properties of starch and flour from bambarra groundnut. Songklanakarin Journal Science and Technology. 30(Suppl.1): 51-56.

Lutfi, Z., Nawab, A., Alam, F. and Hasnain, A. (2017). Morphological, physicochemical, and pasting properties of modified water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) starch. International Journal of Food Properties. 20(5): 1016-1028.

AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD.

Juliano, B.O. (1971). A simplified assay for milled-rice amylose. Cereal Science Today. 16: 334-340.

Liaotrakoon, W., Liaotrakoon, V., Wongsaengtham, W. and Rodsiri, S. (2014). Influence of dry- and wet-milling processes on physicochemical properties, syneresis, pasting profile and microbial count of job’s tear flour. International Food Research Journal. 21: 1745-1749.

Singh, G.D, Bawa, A.S., Riar C.S. and Saxena, D.C. (2009). Influence of heat-moisture treatment and acid modifications on physicochemical, rheological, thermal and morphological characteristics of Indian water chestnut (Trapa natans) starch and its application in biodegradable films. Starch/Stärke. 61(9): 503-513.

Thirathumthavorn, D. and Charoenrein, S. (2005). Thermal and pasting properties of acid-treated rice starches. Starch/Stärke. 57: 217-222.

Wuttisela, K., Shobsngob, S., Triampo, W. and Triampo, D. (2008). Amylose/amylopectin simple determination in acid hydrolyzed tapioca starch. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society. 53(3): 1565-1567.

Correia, P.R. and Beirao-da-Costa, M.L. (2010). Chestnut and acorn starch properties affected by isolation methods. Starch/Stärke. 62(8): 421–428.

Palacios-Fonseca, A.J., Castro-Rosas, J., Gómez-Aldapa, C.A., TovarBenítez, T., Millán-Malo, B. M., del Real, A. et al. (2013). Effect of the alkaline and acid treatments on the physicochemical properties of corn starch. CyTA-Journal of Food. 11(1): 67-74.

Poonnakasem, N. (2013). Effect of hydrocolloids on the bread staling. Journal of Food Technology, Siam University. 8(1): 12-20.

Rujirapisit, P. (2006). Chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharisdulcis Trin.) flour and starch. Research reports. University of The Thai Chamber of Commerce. [Online] Available from https://scholar.utcc.ac.th/ handle/66269 76254/647. [Accessed February 15, 2020]

Baldwin, P.M. (2001). Starch granule-associated proteins and polypeptides: A review. Starch/Stärke. 53: 475–503.

Lee, H.C., Htoon, A.K. and Paterson, J.L. (2007). Alkaline extraction of starch from Australian lentil cultivars Matilda and Digger optimized for starch yield and starch and protein quality. Food Chemistry. 102: 551-559.

Galliard, T. and Bowler, P. (1987). Morphology and composition of starch: Starch properties and potential. (1st ed.). John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Adkar, P., Dongare, A., Ambavade, S. and Bhaskar, V.H. (2014). Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A review on nutritional and pharmacological aspects. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. 959830.

Sandhu, K.S., Singh, N. and Lim, S.T. (2007). A comparison of native and acid thinned normal and waxy corn starches: physicochemical, thermal, morphological and pasting properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 40(9): 1527-1536.

Collado, L.S. and Corke, H. (2003). Starch properties and functionalities: Characterization of cereals and flours, properties, analysis and applications. (1st ed.). Marcel Dekker, New York.

Na Nakorn, K., Tongdang, T. and Sirivongpaisal, P. (2019). Crystallinity and rheological properties of pregelatinized rice starches differing in amylose content. Starch/Stärke. 61: 101-108.

Srirot, K. and Piyachomkwan, K. (2003). Technology of starch. (3rd ed.). Kasetsart University, Bangkok.

Marta, H. and Tensiska, T. (2017). Functional and amylographic properties of physically-modified sweet potato starch. KnE Life Sciences. 2(6): 689-700.

Gunaratne, A. and Hoover, R. (2002). Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structure and physicochemical properties of tuber and root starches. Carbohydrate Polymer. 49: 425-437.

Sriburi, P. and Hill, S.E. (2000). Extrusion of cassava starch with either variations in ascorbic acid concentration or pH. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 35: 141-154.

Beta, T. and Corke, H. (2001). Noodle quality as related to sorghum starch properties. Cereal Chemistry. 78: 417-420.

Hagenimana, A., Ding, X. and Fang, T. (2006). Evaluation of rice flour modified by extrusion cooking. Journal of Cereal Science. 43(1): 38-46.

Collado, L., Mabesa, L., Oates, C. and Corke, H. (2001). Bihon-type noodles from heat-moisture-treated sweet potato starch. Journal of Food Science. 66: 604-609.

Whistler, R.L. (1954). Starch retrogradation: Starch and it’s derivatives. (1st ed.). John Wiley and son, New York.

Ratithammatorn, T. (2016). Effects of heating and cooling on structural change and digestion of starch. Burapha Science Journal. 21(2): 246-259.

Senanayake, S., Gunaratne, A., Ranaweera, K.K. and Bamunuarachchi, A. (2014). Effect of hydroxypropylation on functional properties of different cultivars of sweet potato starch in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Food Science. 148982.