Properties of Macadamia Shell Charcoal Prepared by a Small Artificial Furnace

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Piyarut Moonsri


The objective of this research was to study the properties of macadamia shell charcoal prepared in a small artificial furnace. The macadamia shell was agricultural sector waste. The constituents of macadamia shell were cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash in the proportions of 28.9%, 30.5%, 40.3%, and 0.3% by weight, respectively. After the carbonization of 3 kilograms of macadamia shell using a 54 liter-artificial furnace with the highest sintering temperature in the range of 400-500 °C for less than 3 hours, a good quality macadamia charcoal with a shiny surface was obtained with a moderated yield of 40.7%. The macadamia charcoal hadanelectrical conductivity ability. It had a bulk density of 0.46 g cm-3, and had an iodine absorption coefficient value of 374.7 mg g-1. The approximate analysis showed that the quantities of fixed carbon, ash, moisture, and volatile matters were in the proportionsof 83.2%, 6.3%, 4.3%, and 6.2% by weight, respectively. In addition, the high heating value (HHV) of the macadamia shell charcoal when analyzed by a bomb calorimeter was 17.68 MJ kg-1 (or 4,223 kcal kg-1).

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Moonsri, P. . (2021). Properties of Macadamia Shell Charcoal Prepared by a Small Artificial Furnace. Journal of Vocational Education in Agriculture, 5(1), 28–39. Retrieved from
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