Two Novel Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Naproxen via a Modulation to Hydroxy Analog

Main Article Content

Hana Sh. Mahmood*
Thura Z. Al-Sarraj


Potassium permanganate was used for oxidation of the synthesized hydroxy analog of Naproxen by two methods. In the first method, the oxidation occurred in acidic medium, the excess of permanganate was followed at 545 nm. Beer's law is obeyed between concentrations of 10 µg/10ml-80 µg/10ml (1-8 ppm) with good sensitivity (molar absorptivity of, good precision (RSD better than ±3.2 %) and high accuracy (relative error better than 1.6%). Sandell's sensitivity index is 0.0237 µ The detection limit (LOD) is 0.075 µg‧ml-1 and the quantitation limit (LOQ) is 0.25 µg‧ml-1. For the second method, potassium permanganate was used to oxidize the hydroxy analog of Naproxen in basic medium, and the manganate produced was followed at 610 nm. The linearity range was from 20 to 70 µg/10 ml (2-7 ppm) with good sensitivity (molar absorptivity of 6.8 x 103, good precision (RSD better than ±2.5%) and high accuracy (relative error better than 1.51%). Sandell's sensitivity index is 0.0338 µ while the detection limit (LOD) is 0.0098 µg‧ml-1 and quantitation limit (LOQ) is 0.03296 µg‧ml-1. The two methods were applied successfully for the determination of Naproxen after extraction of the active ingredient by ethyl acetate.


Keywords: Naproxen; modulation; oxidation; potassium permanganate

*Corresponding author: Tel.: 07 701 604 350



Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


[1] Venkataharsha, P.,Maheshwara, E.,Raju, Y.P., Reddy, V.A., Rayadu, B.S.andKarisetty, B. 2015.Liposomal Aloe vera trans-emulgel drug deliveryof Naproxen and nimesulide: A study.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation,15 (1),28-34.
[2] Brashier, D.B.S., Khadka, A., Mishra, P.,Sharma, A.K., Dahiya, N. andGupta, A.K. 2014.Evaluation of the protectiveeffects of Naproxen and celecoxib on Naproxenhthalene-induced cataract in albino rats.Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Bioscience,2 (1),28-32.
[3] Nair, A.S., 2019.Cardiovascular safety of Naproxen for treating cancer and noncancer chronic pain. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 25 (1),165-166.
[4] Ammar, Y.A., Salem,M.A., Fayed, E.A., Helal, M.H., El-Gaby, M.S.A. and Thabet,H.Kh., 2019.Naproxenderivative: Synthesis, reactions and biological applications. Synthetic Communications, 47 (15), 1341-1367.
[5] Mahmood, H.Sh. and Al-Sarraj, T.Z., 2019. A creative indirect spectophotometric determination of Naproxen.Rafidain Journal of Science,28 (1),51-60.
[6] Trinath, M., Banerjee, S.K., Teja, H.H. and Bonde, C.G., 2010. Development and validation of spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Sumatriptan and Naproxen sodium in tablet dosage form.Der PharmaciaSinica,1, 36- 41.
[7] Jain, N.A.,Lohiya, R.T.andUmekar, M.J., 2011. Spectrophotometric determination of Naproxen and esomeprazole in a laboratory mixture by simultaneous equation, absorption correction, absorption ratio and area under curve methods.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Research,2(5), 130-134.
[8] Sloka, S.N.,Gurupadayya, B.M. and Kumar, Ch.A., 2011. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Naproxen and pantoprazole in pharmaceuticals dosage form.Journal of Applied Chemical Research, 17, 65-74.
[9] Belal,F.,Ibrahim, F.,Sheribah, Z.A. and Alaa, H., 2018. New spectrophotometric/chemometric assisted methods for the simultaneous determination of imatinib, gemifloxacin, nalbuphine and naproxen in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine.Spectrochimica Acta. Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy,198,51-60.
[10] Alizadeh, N. and Keyhanian, F., 2015 Simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of naproxen in pure,pharmaceutical preparation and human serum samples.ActaPoloniaePharmaceutica-Drug Research,72(5), 867-875.
[11] Keyhanian, F. Alizadeh, N. and Shojaie, A.F., 2014. Spectrophotometric determination of Naproxen as ion-pair with bromophenol blue in bulk, pharmaceutical human serum samples.Current Chemistry Letters,3,15-22.
[12] Muneer, S., Muhammad, I.N., Abrar, M.A., Munir, I., Kaukab, I.,Sagheer, A., Zafar, H. and Sultana, K., 2017. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Naproxen in prepared pharmaceutical dosage form and human plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study. Journal of Chromatography &. Separation Techniques, 8(3), 1-5.
[13] Pansara, V.H., Kakadiya, M. andSaishivam, 2013. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Naproxen and paracetamol in their combined solid dosage form. AnInternational Journal,1(7),633-636.
[14] Veeragoni, A.K.,Sindgi, V.M. and Satla, S.R., 2016. Bioanalytical validated LC-MS method for determination of Naproxen in human plasma. International Journal for Modern Trends in Science and Technology,2(9), 96-99.
[15] Basavaiah, K. and Devi, O.Z., 2010. Application of oxidizing properties of permanganate to the determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulation.Journal of Mexican Chemical Society, 54(4), 182-191.
[16] Basavaiah, K., Tharpa, K., Anil Kumar, U.R., Rajedraprasad, N., Hiriyanna, Sg. And Vinay, K.B., 2009. Optimized andvalidated spectrophotometric methods for the determination of raloxifene in pharmaceuticalsusing permanganate. ArchiveofPharmacalResearch, 32(9), 1271-1279.
[17] Al-Hamdany, F.K., 2009. Synthesis of Some (s)-2-(6'-methoxy-2'-Naproxenhthyl) Propanoic Acid Derivatives (Naproxen). Ph.D. University of Mosul.
[18] Ka Lei Senior Project,2009.Chem 319: Isolation of Naproxen. [online] Available at:
[19] Mahmood, H.Sh. and Al-Sarraj, T.Z., 2019. A novel spectrophotometric determination of Naproxen via a modification to the hydroxy analog followed by oxidative-coupling reaction. Colloidal Education Journal,1 (1),261-272.
[20] Myers, D., 2006. Surfactant Science and Technology. 3rded.New Jersey:John Wiley and Sons, Inc., p.126.
[21] British Pharmacopeia, 2013. 7thed. London:System Simulation Ltd the Stationary Office (CD ROM).
[22] Christian, G.D., 2004. Analytical Chemistry. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.