Effect of Food to Microbe (F/M) Ratio on Anaerobic Digestion of Refinery Waste Sludge under Mesophilic Conditions: Biogas Potential and Phytotoxicity

Main Article Content

Sutharat Muenmee
Suthida Theepharaksapan
Jarungwit Boonnorat


This study investigated the possibilities of improving biogas yield from anaerobic digestion of refinery activated sludge (RAS) by optimizing the food to microorganism (F/M) ratio.  Different F/M ratios of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 were studied. The highest biogas production (147.98±7.40 ml/gvs), methane production (51.41±1.78 ml/gvs) and methane content (42.00±5.90%) were obtained from the F/M ratio of 1.00 followed by 0.50, 0.25 and 2.00, respectively.  The phytotoxicity of biosolids that came from anaerobic digestion was also evaluated using three different types of seed (Vigna radiata, Brassica rapa and Lycopersicon esculentum) during this process.  Increasing amount of RAS via increasing of the F/M ratio (0.25-1.00) stimulated plant development (GI>100) and reduced the phytotoxicity of RAS.

Keywords: biogas; refinery waste sludge; anaerobic digestion; phytotoxicity

*Corresponding author: Tel.: (+66)38627000 ext.5705

                                            E-mail: sutharat.m@sciee.kmutnb.ac.th


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


[1] Hu, G., Li, J.and Zeng, G., 2013. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 261, 470-490.
[2] Ahmadi, M., Tamimi, Z., Jaafarzadeh, N., Teymouri, P. and Maleki, R., 2016. Characteristics and disposal options of sludges from an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant in Iran, 2013. Archives Hygiene Sciences, 5(1), 39-46.
[3] Hasani, F. and Nabhani, N., 2016. Waste management system in petroleum refinery. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research, 7(3), 1446-1452.
[4] Berktay, A. and Nas, B., 2007. Biogas Production and Utilization Potential of Wastewater Treatment Sludge. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 30(2), 179-188.
[5] Demirbas, A., Taylan, O. and Kaya, D., 2016. Biogas production from municipal sewage sludge (MSS). Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 38(20), 3027-3033.
[6] Roy, R., Haak, L., Li, L. and Pagilla, K., 2016. Anaerobic digestion for solids reduction and detoxification of refinery waste streams. Process Biochemistry, 51(10),1552-1560.
[7] Haak, L., Roy, R. and Pagilla, K., 2016. Toxicity and biogas production potential of refinery waste sludge for anaerobic digestion. Chemosphere, 144, 1170-1176.
[8] Miron, Y., Zeeman, G., Van Lier, J.B. and Lettinga, G., 2000. The role of sludge retention time in the hydrolysis and acidifcation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins during digestion of primary sludge in CSTR systems. Water Research, 34(5), 1705-1713.
[9] Wang, Q., Liang, Y., Zhao, P., Li, Q.X., Guo, S., Chen, C., 2016. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study. Scientific Reports, 6, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep38245.
[10] Ferreiro, N. and Soto, M., 2003. Anaerobic hydrolysis of primary sludge: influence of sludge concentration and temperature. Water Science and Technology, 47(12), 239-426.
[11] Prashanth, S., Kumar, P. and Mehrotra, I., 2006. Anaerobic degradability: Effect of particulate COD. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE, 132(4), 488-496.
[12] Kafel, G.K., Bhattarai, S., Kim, S.H. and Chen, L., 2014. Effect of feed to microbe rations on anaerobic digestion of Chinese cage waste under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions: Biogas potential and kinetic study. Journal of Environmental Management, 133, 293-301.
[13] Hadiyarto, A., Budiyono, Johari, S., Hutama, I. and Hasyim, W., 2015. The effect of F/M ratio to the anaerobic decomposition of biogas production from fish offal waste. Waste Technology, 3(2), 58-62.
[14] Sindelar, O., Adamcova, D., Zloch, J. and Vaverkova, M.D., 2020. Phytotoxicity of sewage sludge from selected wastewater treatment plant-new opportunities in sewage sludge treatment. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 9, 75-83.
[15] Oleszczuk, P., 2008. Phytotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge composts related to physico-chemical properties, PAHs and heavy metals. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 69, 496-505.
[16] APHA, 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed. Washington D.C: American public Health Association.
[17] Anuar, N.K., Man, H.C., Idrus, S., Daud, N.N.N., 2017. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) from anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and decanter cake. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 368, https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/368/1/012027.
[18] Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F. and Hodgkiss, I.J., 1996. Effects of composting on phytotoxicity of spent pig-manure sawdust little. Environmental Pollution, 93, 249-256.
[19] Luo, Y., Liang, J., Zeng, G., Chen, M., Mo, D., Li, G. and Zhang, D. 2018. Seed germination test for toxicity evaluation of compost: its roles, problems and prospects. Waste Management, 71, 109-114.
[20] Zhang, R., El-Mashad, H.M., Hartman, K., Wang, F., Liu, G., Choate, C. and Gamble, P., 2007. Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. Bioresource Technology, 98(4), 929-935.
[21] Karim, K., Klasson, K.T., Hoffmann, R., Drescher, S.R., DePaoli, D.W. and Al-Dahhan, M.H., 2005. Anaerobic digestion of animal waste: Effect of mixing. Bioresource Technology, 96(14), 1607-1612.
[22] Hao, Z., Yang, B. and Jahng, D., 2018. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge. Waste Management, 72, 296-305.
[23] Mao, C., Feng, Y., Wang, X. And Ren, G., 2015. Review on research achievements of biogas from anaerobic digestion. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 540-555.
[24] Hobbs, S.R., Landis, A.E., Rittmann, B.E., Young, M.N., Parameswaran, P., 2018. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios. Waste Management, 71, 612-617.
[25] Speece, R.E., 2008. Anaerobic biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment. Environmental Science and Technology, 17(9), 416-427.
[26] Pramanik, S.K., Suja, F.B., Zain, S.M. and Pramanik, B.K., 2019. The anaerobic digestion process of biogas production from food waste: prospects and constraints. Bioresource Technology Reports, 8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biteb.2019.100310.
[27] Leung, D.Y.C. and Wang, J., 2016. An overview on biogas generation from anaerobic digestion of food waste. International Journal of Green Energy, 13(2), 119-131.
[28] Ali, A.M., Abu-Hassan, M.A., Ibrahim, R.R., Zaini, M.A.A., Abdulkarim, B.I., Hussein, A.S., Su, S.M. and Halim, M.A.I.M., 2017. Characterization of petroleum sludge from refinery industry biological wastewater treatment unit. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 6(9), 61-65.
[29] Polprasert, C., 1996. Organic Waste Recycling-Technology and Management. 2nd ed. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.
[30] Athanasoulia, E., Melidis, P. and Aivasidis, A., 2012. Optimization of biogas production from waste activated sludge through serial digestion. Renew Energy, 47, 147-151.
[31] Maamri, S. and Amrani, M., 2014. Biogas production from waste activated sludge using cattle dung inoculums: Effect of total solid contents and kinetics study. Energy Procedia, 50, 352-359.
[32] Liu, J.H., Zhang, W.D., Liu, S.Q., Zhao, X.L., Yin, F., Liu, J., Xu, L., Chen, Y.B. and Yang, H., 2014. The effect of food-microorganism (F/M) ratio on gas properties in batch biogas fermentation with walnut peel. Advanced Materials Research, 937, 291-296.
[33] Keramati, M. and Beiki, H., 2017. The effect of pH adjustment together with different substrate to inoculum ratios on biogas production from sugar beet wastes in an anaerobic digester. Journal of Energy Management and Technology, 1(2), 6-11.
[34] Yang, Q., Wu, B., Yao, F., He, L., Chen, F., Ma, Y., Shu, X., Hou, K., Wang, D. and Li, X., 2019. Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge: co-substrate and influencing parameters. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 18, 771-793.
[35] Emino, E.R. and Warman, P.R., 2004. Biological assay for compost quality. Compost Science and Utilization, 12(4), 342-348.
[36] Siles-Castellano, A.B., López, M.J., López-González, J.A., Suárez-Estrella, F., Jurado, M.M., Estrella-González, M.J. and Moreno, J., 2020. Comparative analysis of phytotoxicity and compost quality in industrial composting facilities processing different organic wastes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 252, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119820.
[37] Fijalkowski, K. L. and Kwarciak-Kozlowska, A., 2020. Phytotoxicity assay to assess sewage sludge phytoremediation rate using guaiacol peroxidase activity (GPX): A comparison of four growth substrates. Journal of Environmental Management, 263, https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jenvman.2020.110413.
[38] Johnson, O.A. and Affam, A.C., 2019. Petroleum sludge treatment and disposal: A review. Environmental Engineering Research, 24(2), 191-201.
[39] Huang, J., Yu, Z., Gao, H., Yan, X., Chang, J., Wang, C., Hu, J. and Zhang, L., 2017. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices. PLoS ONE, 12(6), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0178110.
[40] Zhang, D., Luo, W., Li, Y., Wang, G. and Li, G., 2018. Performance of co-composting sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste at different proportions. Bioresource Technology, 250, 853-859.