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Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) is protozoa in the order Microsporidia and its seroprevalence increases in many countries including Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of E. cuniculi infection in meat rabbits at Central part of Thailand. Two hundred and sixty four fattening rabbits were selected to collect serum by systematic random sampling which were entered the slaughterhouse during December 2016 to January 2017. The seroprevalence of E. cuniculi infection detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the study population is 42.4%. Thereafter, the owners of rabbit farm were interviewed on production network and general information. Production network was separated into two groups which was network A (Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces) and network B (Phetchaburi province) which there were not any exchange between farms across the networks except using the same slaughterhouse. Lower percentage of seropositive results was observed in network A (20%) comparing to network B (71.9%). The differences between two networks are management program, age of slaughter rabbits, nutrition management and ventilation in housing which could be the cause of the contrast seroprevalence. The future survey to identify risk factors should be studied for getting the important information for prevention program and standard improvement on meat rabbit production in Thailand.
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