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Canine viral enteritis is one of the most important viral diseases in dogs. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) can cause fever, vomiting and diarrhea or bloody diarrhea. In certain cases, an increased mortality rate has been observed in puppies with systemic complications such as severe dehydration and myocarditis. CPV-2 dissemination occurred rapidly among dog population worldwide within two years after its first report in late 1970s. Subsequently, the genetic and antigenic changes in VP2 gene of CPV-2 resulted in two new variant strains, CPV- 2a and CPV-2b. The outbreaks of these two strains has been reported in various countries including Thailand. Recently, an emerging CPV2-c strain has been shown higher virulence and pathogenicity in adult dogs than CPV-2a and CPV-2b strains and increased potential infectivity to feline species. The molecular epidemiology studies have indicated that the CPV-2c strain has already been circulated globally and has shown increasing prevalence. Whereas CPV-2 infection can be detected using several methods such as virus isolation from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and virus identification by hemagglutination assay (HA); however, these techniques were less sensitive and time-consuming. Therefore, the molecular biology-based methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), nested PCR and Multiplex PCR are more efficient for clinical diagnosis due to high sensitivity and less laborious process. The information from this review article may be valuable for veterinary students, veterinary technology students, veterinarians and researchers interested in CPV-2.
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