Main Article Content
A seroprevalence survey of Influenza virus type A of Equidae (horse, donkey and mule) was conducted in area of Chiangmai and Kanchanaburi provinces between April to May in 2017. The blood samples collected from total 285 animals, 132 samples from Chiangmai and 153 from Kanchanaburi province, were tested for influenza virus type A antibody by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean values of S/N ratio from Equid group age of younger than 1 year old, group 1-2 years old and group older than 2 years old (average 8 years old) were 0.86, 0.85 and 0.86 respectively. The mean values of S/N ratio of Equid from Chiangmai and Kanchanaburi provinces were 0.79 and 0.91 respectively. The S/N ratio value equals or lower than 0.60 was considered positive. In this study, the influenza virus type A antibody was not found from horse, donkey and mule in all age groups of both provinces.
Abdel-Moniem, A., A. E. Abdel-Ghany, and S. A. Shany. 2010. Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys. J. Biomed. Sci. 17: 25.
Anon. 2008. Summary of the Australian equine influenza outbreak. Vet. Rec. 163: 378.
Barquero, N., J. M. Daly, and J. R. Newton, 2007. Risk factors for influenza infection in vaccinated racehorses: lessons from an outbreak in Newmarket, UK in 2003. Vaccine. 25: 7520–7529.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2017. (cited 1 April 2017). Influenza Type A Virus. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/influenza-a-virus-subtypes.htm.
Chang, H., F. Dai, Z. Liu, F. Yuan, S. Zhao, X. Xiang, F. Zou, B. Zeng, Y. T. Fan, and G. Duan. 2014. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. Virol. J. 11:18.
Chenchev, Iv., N. Rusenova, and N. Sandev. 2011. Seroepidemiological studies of donkeys’blood for detection of some virus infections on ungulates. Trakia J. Sci. 9(2): 82-86.
Crawford, P. C., E. J. Dubovi, W. L. Castleman, I. Stephenson, E. P. Gibbs, L. Chen, C. Smith, R. C. Hill, P. Ferro, J. Pompey, R. A. Bright, M. J. Medina, C. M. Johnson, C. W. Olsen, N. J. Cox, A. I. Klimov, J. M. Katz, and R. O. Donis. 2005. Transmission of equine influenza virus to dogs. Science. 310: 482.
Cullinane, A., D. Elton, and J. Mumford. 2010. Equine influenza – surveillance and control. Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, Blackwell, UK, 339-344.
Ducatez, M. F., R. G. Webster, and R. J. Webby. 2008. Animal influenza epidemiology. Vaccine. 12 (Suppl. 26): D67-D69.
Fouchier, R. A. M., A. D. M. E Osterhaus, and I. H. Brown. 2003. Animal influenza virus surveillance. Vaccine. 21:1754-1757.
Galvin, P., S. Gildea, S. Arkins, C. Walsh, and A. Cullinane. 2013. The evaluation of a nucleoprotein ELISA for the detection of equine influenza antibodies and the differentiation of infected from vaccinated horses (DIVA). Influenza Other Respir. Viruses. 7 (Suppl. 4): 73-80.
Gildea, S., S. Arkins, and A. Cullinane. 2011. Management and environmental factors involved in equine influenza outbreaks in Ireland 2007-2010. Equine Vet. J. 43(5): 608-617.
Gildea, S., D. A. Fitzpatrick, and A. Cullinane. 2013. Epidemiological and virological investigations of equine influenza outbreaks in Ireland (2010-2012). Influenza Other Respir. Viruses (Suppl. 4): 61-72.
Happold, J. and R. Rubira. 2011. Equine influenza: patterns of disease and seroprevalence in Thoroughbred studs and implications for vaccination. Aust. Vet. J. 89 (Suppl. 1): 135-137.
Hemida, M. G., R. A. P. M. Perera, D. K. W Chu, A. A. Alnaeem, and M. Peiris. 2019. Evidence of equine influenza A (H3N8) activity in horses from Eastern and Central Saudi Arabia: 2013-2015. Equine Vet. J. 51: 218-221.
Jang, H., Y. K. Jackson, J. B. Daniels, A. Ali, K. Kang, M. Elaish, and C-W. Lee. 2017. Seroprevalence of three influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8) in pet dogs presented to a veterinary hospital in Ohio. J. Vet. Sci. 18(S1): 291-298.
Major, D. A. and B. Jones. 2011. Behaviour of equine influenza virus in a naïve population: a practitioner’s perspective. Aust. Vet. J. 89(Suppl. 1): 13-14.
Mavadiya, S. V., S. K. Raval, S. A. Mehta, A. N. Kanani, A. A. Vagh, P. H. Tank, and P. R. Patel. 2012. Epidemiology survey of equine influenza in horses in India. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. EpiZ. 31(3): 871-875.
Meseko, C. A., D. O. Ehizibolo, E. C. Nwokike, and Y. S. Wungak. 2016. Serological evidence of equine influenza virus in horse stables in Kaduna, Nigeria. J. Equine Sci. 27(3): 99-105.
Morley, P. S., H. G. Townsend, J. R. Bogdan, and D. M. Haines. 2000. Risk factors for disease associated with influenza virus infections during three epidemics in horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 216: 545-550.
Neuman, G. and Y. Kawaoka. 2015. Transmission of influenza A viruses. Virology 479-480: 234-246.
Office International des Epizooties (OIE). 2016 (cited 1 January 2016) Equine influenza Malaysia. Available from: http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?reportid=19160.
Pusterla, N., P. H. Kass, S. Mapes, C. Wademan, N. Akana, C. Barnett, C. MacKenzie, and W. Vaala. 2015. Voluntary Surveillance Program for Equine Influenza Virus in the United States from 2010 to 2013. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 29: 417–422.
Songserm, T., A. Amonsin, R. Jam-on, N. Sae-Heng, N. Meemak, N. Pariyothorn, S. Yayungporn, A. Theamboonlers, and Y. Poo-vorawan. 2006. Avian influenza H5N1 naturally infected domestic cat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 681-683.
Stephen, C. 2002. Isolation of influenza A virus from a 7-day-old foal with bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Can. Vet. J. 43: 55-56.
Suzuki, Y., T. Ito, T. Suzuki, R. E. Jr. Holland, T. M. Chambers, M. Kiso, H. Ishida, and Y. Kawkoka. 2000. Sialic acid species as a determinant of the host range of influenza A viruses. J. Virol. 74: 11825-11831.
Virmani, N., B. K. Singh, B. R. Gulati, and S. Kumar. 2010. Equine influenza outbreak in India (2008-09): Virus isolation, sero-epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene. Vet. Microbiol. 143: 224-237.
Vitoonpong, R. K., C. Sirivan, and R. D. Punyahotra. 2006. Serological study of equine influenza in Thailand. J.Thai Vet. Med. Assoc. 57: 59-67. (in Thai)
Wang, X., S. Liu, H. Mao, Z. Yu, E. Chen, and C. Chai. 2015. Surveillance of avian H7N9 in various environments of Zhejiang Province, China before and after live poultry markets were closed in 2013-2014. PloS ONE 10(8): e0135718.
Weese, J. S. 2014. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control. Equine Vet. J. 46: 654-660.
Wegdan, H. A., K. S. Intisar, M. M. Shaza, O. A. Algezoli, A. Ballal, H. A. Ihsan, M. E. Sahar, A. M. Baraa, K. M. Taha, E. M. Nada, Y. M. Nouri, and Y. H. Ali. 2016. Investigation on influenza virus A infection I different animals in Sudan. Sudan J. Sci. Tech. 17(2): 57-64.
Yadav, M. P., P. K. Uppal, and J. A. Mumford. 1993. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of A / Equi-2 virus isolated from 1987 equine influenza epidemic in India. Int. J. Anim. Sci. 8: 93-98.