Effects of different carotenoids on growth and pigmentation of Spine-cheek anemonefish (Premnas biaculeatus Bloch, 1790)
This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with various synthetic carotenoid type in spine-cheek anemone fish. A 6x3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine two factors. First factor was 5 different carotenoid types: carotene, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. A non-carotenoid supplemented diet was assigned as control. Second factor was supplementation time, which consisted in 1, 2 and 3 months of diet time. Fish diet contained each 100 mg/kg of carotenoid with 3 replications, to satiation, twice a day. Experiment was carried out for 3 months, in which growth and skin color were evaluated monthly. Results revealed the following. Non-significant differences were observed in: a) average daily gain, b) specific growth rate, c) survival rate, and d) feed conversion ratio between fish fed with non-carotenoid supplemented diet and fish fed with each carotenoid (p>0.05). However, brightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), total carotenoid, type and content of carotenoid accumulated in fish skin were significantly affected (p<0.05). Skin of fish fed with supplemented astaxanthin diet showed the highest redness and total carotenoids. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin increased yellowness values. Types and contents of carotenoid accumulated in fish skin were related to type of carotenoid supplement in diet.
Values in supplementation time had shown significantly lower specific growth rate, survival rate, and higher feed conversion ratio when supplemented time increased (p<0.05). Brightness also showed a
decreasing trend, but non-significant difference was observed between month 2 and 3 (p>0.05). Meanwhile,
redness, yellowness, total carotenoids, types and contents of carotenoid accumulated in fish skin showed
an increasing trend in time, but non-significant differences were observed between month 2 and 3 (p>0.05).
Synthetic astaxanthin was mostly an efficient carotenoid source for enhancing redness of spine-cheek
anemone fish skin in a 2-month supplementation period of time as it made redness of skin the highest.
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