Factors Influencing Eating and Taking Iron Supplement Behaviors for Anemia Prevention in Pregnant Women

Main Article Content

Waenureeyah Waeberaheng
Warangkana Chatchawet
Sureeporn Kritcharoen


This predictive research on anemia prevention in pregnant women aimed to: 1) study level of eating and taking iron supplement behaviors, and 2) identify factors for prediction of perceived risk of anemia, perceivedseverityofanemia,perceivedbenefitofanemiaprevention,perceivedbarrierstoanemiapreventive
behavior, and knowledge about anemia among pregnant women. The sample consisted of 150 pregnant
women who were receiving care at the Antenatal Care Clinic of the Regional Health Promotion Center 12
in Yala. The research instrument consisted of 7 questionnaires: 1) general information, 2) perceived risk of
anemia pregnancy, 3) perceived severity of anemia pregnancy, 4) perceived benefit of anemia prevention,
5) perceived barriers to anemia preventive behavior, 6) knowledge about anemia, and 7) eating and taking
iron supplement behaviors for anemia prevention. Content validity of questionnaires was approved by
three experts. Reliability of questionnaires number 2-5 and 7 was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient,
yielding values of 0.81, 0.81, 0.82, 0.87 and 0.89, respectively. The reliability of knowledge of anemia
questionnaire was tested using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20), with a given value of 0.77. Data were analyzed
using percentage, mean and standard deviation. Predictability was analyzed using multiple regression.
     Result showed that the overall level of eating and taking iron supplement behaviors for anemia
prevention in pregnant women was at a good level (M = 64.63, S.D. = 7.23). Regression modeling showed
that perceived barriers for anemia preventive behavior and knowledge of anemia could predict 29 percent of
the variation (Adjusted R2 = .29, p < .001). The result of this study could be data-based for improving model
of promoting eating and taking iron supplement behaviors for anemia prevention in pregnant women.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Anantasawat, S. (2015). Obstetrics nursing 3 (14th ed.). Nonthaburi. YTRprinting. (in Thai).

Bansal, B., Takkar, J., Soni, N. D., Agrawal, D. M., & Agarwal, S. (2013). Comparative study of prevalence of anemia in Muslim and non-Muslim pregnant women of western Rajasthan. International Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 1(2), 47-52

Becker, M., & Maiman, L. (1975). Socio-behavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendation. Medical care, 13(1), 10-24.

Bongkotmas, S. (2002). Effectiveness of the health belief model with group process and live model demonstration
on prevention of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women in Ban Pong hospital, Ratchaburi province. Master’s thesis, Mahidol University. (in Thai).

Chantanamongkol, K. (2016). Nursing care for women with congenital diseases. Pathum Thani: Rangsit University. (in Thai).

Chimchareoen, S., Maneesriwongul, W., & Terathongkum, S. (2012). Relationships between personal factors, beliefs in pregnancy, perception of health promotion and health promoting behaviors among Thai-Muslim pregnant women. Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha University, 20(3), 35-46.

Chowdhury, H.A., Ahmed, K. R., Jebunessa, F., Akter, J., Hossain, H., & Shahjahan, M. (2015). Factors associated with maternal anemia among pregnant women in Dhaka City. Women’s Health, 15, 1-6.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavior sciences (2nd ed.). HillS.D.ale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Jamrit, Y. (2008). Relationships between personal factors, illness perception, social support and health promoting behaviors of pregnant women with anemia. Journal of nursing and public health entral net, 5(1), 30-38. (in Thai)

Jordan, R. G., Engstrom, J. L., Marfell, J. A., & Farley, C. L. (2014). Prenatal and Postnatal Care: A woman Center Red approach. New York. Wiley Blackwell

Kaewthongprakum, P. (2013). Effect of program anemia againt anemia during pregnancy in Nong Chick district Pattani province. Master’s thesis, Rajabhat University. (in Thai)

Khoramabadi, M., Dolatian, M., Hajian, S., Zamanian, M., Taheripanah, R., Sheikhan, Z., Mahamoodi, Z., & Moghadam, S. A. (2015). Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(2), 230-239

Klamklomjit, S. (2011). Food consumption behavior and the increasing body weight of women with first pregnancy : case study, King Mongkut Memorial Hospital Phetchaburi Province. Master’s thesis, Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon. (in Thai).

Kunkitti, S. (2009). The effects of a nutritional promoting program on hematocrit levels among adolescent pregnant women with anemia. Master’s thesis, Thammasat University. (in Thai)

Lertsakonsiri,M.(2017).Concepts and nursing for pregnant women with improved complications.Newupdate. Bangkok: Assumption printing press. (in Thai).

Liamsombat, A., Charupoonphol, P., Supab, J., Singhaniyom, S., & Boonserm, k. (1997). Factors affecting compliance with the prevention and treatment measure of on deficiency anemia in pregnant women. Journal of Public Health, 27(1), 6-19.

Limlikit, R. (2012). Effects of a modified self-management program on health-care behaviors to reduce anemia among Muslim pregnant women. Master’s thesis, Prince of Songkla University. (in Thai).

Ministry of Public Health. Nutrition Division. (2017). Statistics anemia in pregnant women. Retrieved May 20, 2017, from https://hdcservice.moph.go.th/hdc/php?source=pformated/format1.php&catid= 46522b5bd1e06d245 bd81917257a93c&=9024b8ee2bd07548c8f12517eb3021e6. (in Thai).

Musoor, Y. (2008). Health beliefs and socio-cultural context in relation to self care of anemia pregnant women in Narathiwat province. Master’s thesis, Chiang Mai University. (in Thai)

Oliver, E., & Olufunto, K. (2012). Management of anemia in pregnancy, anemia, Silverberg. Retrieved June 8, 2017, from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/30549

Phaksorn, A. (2010). The effectiveness of health education program for promoting self-care behaviors of pregnant women having iron deficiency anemia Prachuap Khiri Khan hospital. Master’s thesis, Kasetsart University. (in Thai).

Phumesawat, S., Suvithayasiri, K., & Chaisup, V. (2013). Perceived benefits and health promoting behaviors in pregnant women at antenatal clinic of Rajavithi hospital. Journal of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, 29(2), 80-94.

Piammongkol, S., Chongsuvivatwong, V., Williams, G., & Pornpatkul., M.(2006). The prevalence and determinants of iron deficiency anemia in rural Thai-Muslim pregnancy women in pattani province. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 37(3), 553-558.

Pipatkul, W., Sinsuksai, N., & Phahuwatanakorn, W. (2015). Effects of a nutrition and iron supplement promoting program on iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women. Journal of Nursing Science, 33(1), 69-76.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing research: generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Rattanapan, U., Boonamnuaykij, B., Chaikongkiat, P., Pokasinjumroon, P. (2007). A study on the development of anemia prevention model in pregnant women. 12th Region Medical Journal, 18(2.1), 87-93.

Regional Health Promotion Center 12, Yala. (2017). Statistics anemia in pregnant women report. Antenatal Care Clinic record. Regional Health Promotion Center 12, Yala. (in Thai).

Sanmongkol, S. (2016). Health perception, social support and self-care behavior among adolescent pregnant in Phuket province. Region 11 Medical Journal, 30(2), 105-114

Sawangwongsin, S. (1998). The application of protection motivation theory and group process for iron deficiency anemia prevention behaviors among pregnant women attending natal care service at Pranungklao hospital in Nonthaburi province. Master’s thesis, Mahidol niversity. (in Thai).

Somanusorn, M. (2014). Nursing of Anemia in pregnant women. In Anantasawat, S. (editor), Obstetrics Nursing 3 (14th ed.). (pp. 31-41). Nonthaburi: YTRprinting. (in Thai).

Sutheravut, P., & Nima, Y. (2009). Integrating knowledge, Islamic law and health promotion: food and nutrition. Songkla: The health system management institute prince of Songkla University. (in Thai).

Suwan, W. (2013). Pregnant women nursing. Nonthaburi: academic welfare scholarship Praboromarajchanok institute. (in Thai).

Taner, C.E., Ekin, A., Solmaz, U., Gezer, C., Cetin, B., Kelesoglu, M., Erpala, M.B., & Ozeren, M. (2015). Prevalence and risk factors of anemia among pregnant women attending a high-volume tertiary care center for delivery. Journal Of The Turkish-German Gynecological Association, 231-236.

Teeraworn, S., Kekphong, J., Japakiya, A., Mongkonrit, P., Jehloh, M., & Muda, N. (2009). Handbook warm family-family happy. Bangkok: S-Print. (in Thai).

Vapy, M., Parisunyakul, S., & Xuto, P. (2015). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers of health promotion and health promoting behaviors of pregnant women, the Lao people’s democratic republic. Nursing Journal, 42(4), 108-119.

Worasaktayanan, W. (2008). Eating behavior of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. Waeng Hospital Narathiwat. 12th Region Medical Journal, 19(2.4), 41-48.

World Health Organization. (2015). Statistics anemia in pregnant women. Retrieved May 8, 2017, from http:// www.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/170250/9789240694439_eng.pdf? sequence=1

Wutthtsarn, K. (2016). Relationships between health belief and eating behaviors in pregnant women with over pre-pregnant body mass index. Master’s thesis, Burapha University. (in Thai).

Yala Provincial Public Health Office. (2017). Statistics anemia in pregnant women. Yala: maternal and child health care. record. Yala provincial Public Health Office. (in Thai)