Rhoptry-neck Protein-2, a Novel Marker of Plasmodium vivax Liver Stage Schizont and Hypnozoite

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Chonnipa Praikongkatham
Gamolthip Niramolyanun
Chonnapat Naktubtim
Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Amornrat Naranuntarat Jensen
Rachaneeporn Jenwithisuk
Wanlapa Roobsoong
Jetsumon Sattabongkot
Niwat Kangwanrangsan

Abstract

        Relapse is a serious problem caused by vivax malaria. The dormancy stage called hypnozoite can be latent in the hepatocyte for several weeks or years, waiting for reactivation before developing into liver stage schizont.  The biology of hypnozoite is not well understood. Furthermore, the study of the liver stage of human malaria is also difficult, due to the lack of small laboratory animal models and the restriction of specific binding molecules between human malaria parasites and human host cells. Thus, the study of the hypnozoite marker would be beneficial for further study of hypnozoite biology and the relapse mechanism. Rhoptry Neck Protein-2 (RON-2), the well-known rhoptry marker, was reported for localization in the invasive stage of the malaria parasite including sporozoite and merozoite, the invasive stages for hepatocytes and erythrocyte respectively. However, there are no reports for the expression of RON-2 in the liver stage. Therefore, we hypothesized that RON-2 which was found to be involved in the invasion process would be expressed in liver stage parasites and would be used as a marker for liver stage schizont and hypnozoite. Here, the human hepatocyte chimeric mice were infected with P. vivax sporozoites before collecting the infected liver tissue for examination using the immunofluorescent technique. The results showed that RON-2 was expressed at the apical end of P. vivax sporozoites and merozoites. However, RON-2 was localized in the surroundings of liver stage schizonts and hypnozoites, and co-localized with Up-regulation in infective sporozoites protein 4 (UIS-4), a well-known form of PVM protein. In conclusion, RON-2 localized at the PVM of the liver stages of schizont and hypnozoite, can be a novel marker for the identification of P. vivax liver stage schizont and hypnozoite.  This could be beneficial for further investigation on the treatment and control of the relapse caused by vivax malaria.

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How to Cite
Praikongkatham, C. ., Niramolyanun, G. ., Naktubtim, C. ., Jiraungkoorskul, W., Naranuntarat Jensen, A. ., Jenwithisuk, R. ., Roobsoong, W. ., Sattabongkot, J. ., & Kangwanrangsan, N. (2020). Rhoptry-neck Protein-2, a Novel Marker of Plasmodium vivax Liver Stage Schizont and Hypnozoite . Ramkhamhaeng Research Journal of Sciences and Technology, 23(2), 43–50. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rusci/article/view/248497
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Articles
Author Biographies

Chonnipa Praikongkatham, Master’s degree of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Master’s degree of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Gamolthip Niramolyanun, Master’s degree of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Master’s degree of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Chonnapat Naktubtim, Master’s degree of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Master’s degree of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Wannee Jiraungkoorskul, Associate Professor Dr. of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Associate Professor Dr. of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Amornrat Naranuntarat Jensen, Assistant Professor Dr. of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Assistant Professor Dr. of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Rachaneeporn Jenwithisuk, Researcher of Mahidol Vivax Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

Researcher of Mahidol Vivax Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

Wanlapa Roobsoong, Researcher and team leader of Mahidol Vivax Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

Researcher and team leader of Mahidol Vivax Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Researche and Director of Mahidol Vivax Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

Researche and Director of Mahidol Vivax Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

Niwat Kangwanrangsan, Lecturer Dr. of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

Lecturer Dr. of Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University

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