Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis of Cancer Cells by the Crude Extract From Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson
Keywords:Chromolaena odorata, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis
Leaf, stem and root of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson were extracted
with aqueous, ethanol, methanol and hexane solvents. The crude leaf extracts with all
solvents showed significantly higher percentage yield than those of stem and root.
Cytotoxicity study of C. odorata extracts was performed on melanoma cell C32 using the
MTT assay. The crude extracts which showed IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml (leaf with
ethanol and hexane), were used with 500 μg/ml concentration at 24 and 48 hours for
determination of melanoma cell C32 apoptosis induction using DAPI staining technique
and DNA fragmentation using gel electrophoresis technique. The results showed
morphological hallmarks in the early stage of apoptosis including chromatin condensation,
chromatin fragmentation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies. The specific
biochemical changes in the late stage of apoptosis showed DNA fragmentation.