Bioremediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Environment: Alternatives and Limitations


  • Pumis Thuptimdang Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University
  • Panaya Kotchaplai Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Chulalongkorn University


Bioremediation, Biodegradation, Persistent Organic Pollutants


The contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environment has been increasing in recent years due to anthropogenic activities. The toxicity of POPs even in the concentration at nanogram levels make them a concern for harmful effects on human health and environment. Human and animal exposure to POPs can lead to various effects ranging from skin and eye irritation, liver and kidney toxicity, nervous system damage, to cancer and death. So far, proper techniques for remediation of POPs are still unresolved. The chemical treatment methods are considered not environmental-friendly and cost-effective; therefore, remediation has favorably turned to biological techniques. Natural microorganisms have been shown by many studies to be able to degrade hazardous pollutants; however, the direct use of only environmentally-isolated microorganisms does not always result in effective remediation of POPs due to their toxic and recalcitrant nature. Therefore, effective strategies should be considered before applying the techniques for bioremediation of POPs. By examining the most recent research and studies for biodegradation of POPs, this review aims to describe the alternatives of bioremediation of POPs, which are the implementation of specific or adapted strains, the application of plant-microorganism interconnected relationships, and the utilization of enzymes. Moreover, the factors that can limit the complete bioremediation of POPs are also discussed. The gaps for improvement provided by previous studies should be able to pave the way for further studies to develop new techniques for bioremediation of POPs in contaminated sites.


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How to Cite

Thuptimdang, P., & Kotchaplai, P. (2023). Bioremediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Environment: Alternatives and Limitations. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science, 12(3), 58–65. Retrieved from



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