Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Anthocyanins and Antioxidant Activities of Khaow-Mak Extracts from Various Colored Rice
Keywords:Khaow-Mak, Colored Rice, Antioxidan
Khaow-Mak is fermented food of rice, which contains a lot of nutrients and antioxidant bioactive compounds. Generally, Khaow-Mak is fermented from cooked white glutinous rice. However, it can be fermented with colored rice (black, purple and red pericarp colored grains) in order to increase bioactive compounds and antioxidant performance. The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of Khaow-Mak extracts, total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by using the scavenging towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The colored rice was collected from 16 local colored rice (red, black and purple) around Thailand. The cooked rice was fermented with a starter (Look Pang) at room temperature for 5 days. Fermented rice samples were extracted with 95% ethanol for 24 hours. Dried crude extracts were obtained using a rotary evaporator at 45°C. The results showed that the content of bioactive compounds of all colored rice were increased after fermenting time. Leum Phua glutinous rice had the highest contents of total phenolic (45.66±0.01 mgGAE/g) flavonoid contents (39.35±0.07 mgRE/g) and anthocyanin contents (3.37 ± 0.21 mg/g). In addition, Leum Phua glutinous rice showed the hightest antioxidant activity of DPPH (EC50 0.364±0.02 mg/ml) and FRAP (28.018±0.01 mgFe(II)/g. These results potentially support the use of local rice extracts as the active raw material of functional food and/or cosmetics.
Abdel-Aal, E.-S.M., Young, J.C., & Rabalski, I. (2006). Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains. J Agr.Food Chem., 54(13), 4696-4704.
Boonsit, P., Pongpiachan, P., Julsrigival, S., & Karladee, D. (2010). Gamma oryzanol content in glutinous purple rice landrace varieties. CMUJ Nat. Sci., 9, 151- 157.
Fukumoto, L.R., & Mazza, G. (2000). Assessing antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity of phenolic compounds. J Agr. Food Chem., 48, 3597-3604.
Fusco, D., Colloca, G., Monaco, M.R., & Cesari, M. (2007). Effects of antioxidants supplementation on the aging process. Clinical Interventions of Aging, 2(3), 377-387.
Griffin, S.P., & Bhagooli, R. (2004). Measuring antioxidant potential in corals using the FRAP assay. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Eco., 30(2), 201-211.
Giusti, M.M., & Wrolstad, R.E. (2001). Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Iqbal, S., Bhanger, M.I., &Anwar, F. (2005) Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in Pakistan. Food Chemistry, 93(2), 265-272.
Kehrer, J.P. (1993). Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 23, 21-48.
Kim, J.K., Lee, S.Y., Chu, S.M., Lim, S.H., Suh, S.C., Lee, Y.T., ... Ha, S.H. (2010). Variation and correlation analysis of flavonoids and carotenoids in Korean pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. J. Agr.Food Chem., 58(24), 12804-12809.
Kong, J.M., Chia, L.S., Goh, N.K., Chia, T.F., & Brouillard, R. (2003). Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins, Phytochemistry, 64(5), 923-933.
Lotong, N. (1992). Seed inoculum and their production technology (2nd ed.). Bangkok: Funny Publishing.
Manosroi, A., Ruksiriwanich, W., Kietthanakorn, B., Manosroi, W., & Manosroi, J. (2011). Relationship between biological activities and bioactive compounds in the fermented rice sap. Food Res. Int., 44, 2757-2765.
Melissa,W., Enio, M., Paulo, F.S.M., Leila, P.S.,Gerson, M.S.S., & Rafael, B.F. (2013). Antioxidant properties of rice grains with light brown, red and black pericarp colors and the effect of processing. Food Research International, 50(2), 698-703.
Michela, V., Carlo, G.R., & Rossana, C. (2019). Fermentation biotechnology applied to cereal industry by-products: Nutritional and functional insights. Frontiers in nutrition, 6(42), 1-13.
Mira, N.V.M., de Massaretto, I.L., Pascual, C.S.C.I., & Lanfer-Marquez, U.M. (2009). Comparative study of phenolic compounds in different Brazilian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22, 405-409.
Mi-Young, K., Catherine, W.R., & Sang-Chul, L. (2010). Physicochemical properties of eight popular glutinous rice varieties in Korea. Plant Prod. Sci., 13(2), 177-184.
Mongkontanawat, N., & Lertnimitmongkol, W. (2015). Product development of sweet fermented rice (Khao-Mak) from germinated native black glutinous rice. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 11(2), 501-515.
Nakornriab, M. (2018). Correlation of antioxidant activity and phytochemical profile in brown rice and brown rice products. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science,11(3), 12-18.
Oki, T., Masuda, M., Kobayashi, M., Nishiba, Y., Furuta, S., Suda, I., & Sato, T. (2002). Polymeric procyanidins as radical-scavenging components in red-hulled rice. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50(26), 7524-7529.
Pramai, P., & Jiamyangyuen, S. (2016). Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol, 38 (5), 463-472.
Plaitho, Y. Kangsadalampai, K., & Sukprasansap, M. (2013). The protective effect of Thai fermented pigmented rice on urethane induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Med. Plant Res., 7, 91-98.
Plaitho, Y. (2016). Preventive effect of oxidative stress in human intestinal cell line (Caco2-cell) of Kao Mak made from black glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L. variety Leum Phua). Science and Technology J., 24(5), 813-830.
Rohrer, C.A., & Siebenmorgen, T.J. (2004). Nutraceutical concentrations within the bran of various rice kernel thickness fractions. Biosystems Engineering, 88(4), 453-460.
Sadabpod, K., Kangsadalampai, K., & Tongyonk, L. (2010). Antioxidant activity and antimutagenicity of hom nil rice and black glutinous rice. J. Health Res., 24(2), 49-54.
Sangkitikomon, V., Tentumnou, T., & Rodchanasasod, A. (2008). Comparisions of total antioxidants of red rice, black rice and black sticky rice. Journal of nutrition, 43, 16-21.
Setyaningsih, W., Hidayah, N., Saputro, I.E., Lovillo, M.P., & Barroso, C.G. (2015). Study of glutinous and nonglutinous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties on their antioxidant compounds. In International Conference on Plant, Marine and Environmental Sciences (pp. 1-2). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Institute of Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering.
Shen, Y., Jin, L., Xiao, P., Lu, Y., & Bao, Y. (2009). Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity in rice grain and their relations to grain color, size and weight. Cereal Science, 49, 106-111.
Sompong, R., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martin, G., & Berghofer, E. (2011). Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chem., 124,132-140.
Sutharut, J., & Sudarat, J. (2012). Total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of germinated colored rice. International Food Research Journal, 19(1), 215-221.
Suwannalert, P., & Rattanachitthawat, S. (2011). High Levels of Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Oryza sativa – unpolished Thai rice strain of Luem Phua. Trop J. Pharm Res., 10, 431-436.
Tian, S., Nakamura, K., & Kayahara, H. (2004). Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice, J. Agric. Food Chem., 52, 4808-4813.
Vichapong, J., Sookserm, M., Srijesdaruk, V., Swatsitang, P., & Srijaranai, S. (2010). High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activities in rice varieties, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 43(9), 1325-1330.
Wang, S.Y., & Jiao, H. (2000a). Correlation of antioxidant capacities to oxygen radical scavenging enzyme activities in blackberry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(11), 5672-5676.
Wang, S.Y., & Jiao, H. (2000b). Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48,(11),5677-5684.
Wang, C., & Shu, Q. (2007). Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of purple pericarp gene Pb in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Chinese science bulletin, 52, 3097-104.
Wong, C., Li, H., Cheng, K., & Chen, F. (2006). A systematic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Food Chem., 97, 705-711.
Yawadio, R., Tanimori, S., & Morita, N. (2007). Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chemistry, 101 (4), 1616-1625.
Zhai, F.H., Wang, Q., & Han, J.R. (2015). Nutritional components and antioxidant properties of seven kinds of cereals fermented by the basidiomycete Agaricus blazei. J. Cereal Sci., 65, 202-208.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.