Antimicrobial Effect of Deodorant Products Containing Rhinacanthus nasutus Extract for Reducing Armpit Odor
Keywords:Armpit odor, Microbiota, Roll-on deodorant, Rhinacanthus nasutus extract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of developing a roll-on deodorant that can reduce armpit microbiota bacteria to decrease armpit odor. The richest apocrine sweat glands in the armpit region secrete a variety of odor precursors that are transformed into volatile odoriferous substances by bacterial enzymes on the skin surface. The dominant armpits microbiota included four groups of bacteria such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Propionibacterium spp., and also fungi or yeasts. Two formulas of the roll-on deodorant products, RDEOF-1 and RDEOF-2 were developed. RDEOF-2 contained an ethanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz leaves inhibited several microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sixteen healthy volunteers showed satisfactory assessment for RDEOF-2 that was greater than RDEOF-1. Armpit bacteria were collected by swab method and armpit odor was evaluated by ASTM method. Results showed dominant bacteria of two genera including Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. in all swab samples that mainly cause armpit odor. Armpit bacterial numbers before using deodorants were high in the range of 2x103 to 9x105 (CFU/mL). After applying RDEOF-1 and RDEOF-2, bacterial numbers decreased in the range of 1x103 to 8x105 and 3x102 to 4x105 (CFU/mL), respectively. Armpit bacteria were found in males more than in females. Deodorant products containing R. nasutus extract have been shown to reduce the bacteria that cause armpit odor. Therefore, the development of the deodorant product with natural plant extracts is warranted.
Abrutyn, E. (2010). Antiperspirant and deodorants. In Z.D. Draelos (Ed.), Cosmetic dermatology: Products & proce-dures (pp. 150-155). Oxford, UK and Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Abrutyn, E.S. (2022). Antiperspirants and deodorants. In Z.D. Draelos (Ed.), Cosmetic dermatology: Products and procedures (pp. 213-222). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Ågren, M.S., Ghathian, K.S., Frederiksen, A.K., Bjerrum, M.J., Calum, H., Danielsen, P.L., ... Jorgensen, L.N. (2020). Zinc oxide inhibits axillary colonization by members of the genus corynebacterium and attenuates selfperceived malodour: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 100(5), 1-6.
Bernard, K.A., & Funke, G. (2015). Corynebacterium. In W.B. Whitman, F. Rainey, P. Kämpfer, M. Trujillo, J. Chun, P. DeVos, B. Hedlund & S. Dedysh (Eds.), Bergey’s manual of systematics of archaea and bacteria. (pp. 1-70). Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons.
Capone, K. A., Dowd, S.E., Stamatas, G.N., & Nikolovski, J. (2011). Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 131(10), 2026-2032.
Dumas, E.R., Michaud, A.E., Bergeron, C., Lafrance, J.L., Mortillo, S., & Gafner, S. (2009). Deodorant effects of a supercritical hops extract: Antibacterial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis and Staphylococcus epidermidis and efficacy testing of a hops/zinc ricinoleate stick in humans through the sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 8(3), 197-204.
Ferdenzi, C., Richard Ortegón, S., Delplanque, S., Baldovini, N., & Bensafi, M. (2020). Interdisciplinary challenges for elucidating human olfactory attractiveness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1800), 20190268.
Gámbaro, A., Roascio, A., Boinbaser, L., Pérez, S., & Parente, E. (2019). Application of two projective techniques in the study of consumer perception of antiperspirant/ deodorants. Journal of Sensory Studies, 34, e12478.
Henmi, A., Sugino, T., Nakammura, K., Nomura, M., & Okuhara, M. (2020). Screening of deodorizing active compounds from natural materials and deodorizing properties of cineole. Journal of Japan Association on Odor Environment, 51(2), 129-143.
James, A.G., Austin, C.J., Cox, D.S., Taylor, D., & Calvert, R. (2013). Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour. FEMS microbiology ecology, 83(3), 527-540.
Kasper D.L., & Fauci A.S. (2013). Harrison’s infectious diseases (2nd ed.). Columbus (OH): McGraw-Hill Education.
Kumar, A.S., Leema, M., Sridevi, S., Sreesaila, S., Anil, L.J., Mohit, M., ... Pillai, Z.S. (2021). A review on synthesis and various pharmacological aspects of Rhinacanthin-C with special emphasis on antidiabetic activity. Materials Today: Proceedings, 46, 3084-3088.
Leaden, J.I, McGinley, K.J., & Hoelzle, K. (1981). The microbiology of the human axillae and its relation to axillary odours. Journal of Investigational Dermatology, 11, 413-416.
Martin, A., Saathoff, M., Kuhn, F., Max, H., Terstegen, L., & Natsch, A. (2010). A functional ABCC11 allele is essential in the biochemical formation of human axillary odor. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 130(2), 529-540.
Mogilnicka, I., Bogucki, P., & Ufnal, M. (2020). Microbiota and malodor-etiology and management. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(8), 2886.
Moskovicz, V., Gross, A., & Mizrahi, B. (2020). Extrinsic factors shaping the skin microbiome. Microorganisms, 8(7), 1023.
Natsch, A., Gfeller, H., Gygax, P., & Schmid, J. (2005). Isolation of a bacterial enzyme releasing axillary malodor and its use as a screening target for novel deodorant formulations 1. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 27(2), 115-122.
Natsch, A., & Emter, R. (2020). The specific biochemistry of human axilla odour formation viewed in an evolutionary context. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1800), 20190269.
Ogbebor, I.M. (2021). Effect of deodorant on microflora of the armpit of uniben female students. African Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, 2(2), 100-108.
Onvimol, N., Onvimala, N., & Boohuad, N. (2021). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz and Acanthus ilicifolius L. extracts. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science. 14(3), 52-59.
Panichakul, T., Boohaud N., Jantre, K., & Onvimol, N. (2017). Antibacterial activity of Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz extract against bacteria with dermatologic relevance. SDU Res. J., 10(2), 133-148.
Philip, K., & Jack, W. (2000). Antiperspirants and deodorants. Poucher’s Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, 10, 69-100.
Puttarak, P., Charoonratana, T., & Panichayupakaranant, P. (2010) Antimicrobial activity and stability of rhinacanthins-rich Rhinacanthus nasutus extract. Phytomedicine, 17(5), 323–327.
Schau H.P. (1986). Media for Isolation-Cultivation-IdentificationMaintenance of Medical Bacteria. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 26(4), 240-240.
Semkova, K., Gergovska, M., Kazandjieva, J., & Tsankov, N. (2015). Hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, and chromhidrosis: Fold (intertriginous) dermatoses. Clinics in Dermatology, 33(4), 483-491.
Troccaz, M., Starkenmann, C., Niclass, Y., van de Waal, M., & Clark, A.J. (2004). 3-Methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol as a major descriptor for the human axilla-sweat odour profile. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 1(7), 1022-1035.
Urban, J., Fergus, D.J., Savage, A.M., Ehlers, M., Menninger, H.L., Dunn, R.R., & Horvath, J.E. (2016). The effect of habitual and experimental antiperspirant and deodorant product use on the armpit microbiome. PeerJ, 4, e1605.
Yamazaki, S., Hoshino, K., & Kusuhara, M. (2010). Odor associated with aging. Anti-Aging Medicine, 7(6), 60-65.
Youenou, B., Chauviat, A., Ngari, C., Poulet, V., & Nazaret, S. (2022). In vitro study to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various multifunctional cosmetic ingredients and chlorphenesin on bacterial species at risk in the cosmetic industry. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 132(2), 933-948.
Wilke, K., Martin, A., Terstegen, L., & Biel, S.S. (2007). A short history of sweat gland biology. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 29(3), 169-179.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.