Optimization of Transethosome by Varying Dark Purple Glutinous Rice Variety Leum Phua (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa) Extracts and Rice Bran Oil under Hot Method


  • Duangduan Wattanuruk Bioproducts Innovation Department, Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University under the Royal Patronage


Transethosome, Nanoparticle, Rice extract, Leum Phua glutinous rice


Leum Pua is native Thai glutinous rice that contains antioxidants higher than other colored rice. The purpose of this study was to develop transethosomes (TEs) extracted from Leum Phua rice by hot method. The influence of rice extract and rice bran oil concentrations was investigated on physical properties of the TEs. The formulation of TEs was performed by selecting the optimal ratio obtained from a mixture of glutinous rice extract at the concentration 20, 30 and 40% (w/v) and rice bran oil 20, 25 and 30% (w/v). Characterization of the TEs was based on results from particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and stability testing. Leum Pua glutinous rice was extracted by 95% ethanol. The extracts were developed for TEs using rice bran oil as phospholipid and lecithin as permeation enhancer, Span 80 and Tween 20 as edge activator (surfactant) in their formula. Furthermore, the required size of ethosome vesicles was prepared by using sonication. Results showed that the optimized TEs formulation with particle size below 300 nm could be achieved by using rice extract at the concentration 30 and 40% (w/v) and rice bran oil 20% (w/v). At a concentration of rice extract 40% (w/v) and rice bran oil 20% (w/v) showed the highest entrapment efficiency (68.94±2.9%). The good colloidal characteristics had a particle size (PZ) of 233.0±12.9 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.314±0.078 and zeta potential (ZP) of -51.4±0.24 mV. The TEs optimized formulation was stable at room temperature and also at elevated temperature conditions (45°C/75% RH) for 3 months. Therefore, based on the current study, the potential of employing the novel carrier transethosomalloaded nanoparticles of Leum Phua rice extracts could serve as an effective dermal delivery. The development of TEs for topical delivery can lead to value added of native Thai glutinous rice.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdellbary, A., Al-Mahallawi, A., Abdelrahim, M., & Ali, A. (2015). Preparation. optimization, and in vitro simulated inhalation delivery of carvedilol nanoparticles loaded on a coarse carrier intended for pulmonary administration. International Jouenal of Nanomedicine, 10, 6339-6353.

Ascenso, A., Raposo, S., Batista, C., Cardoso, P., Mendes, T., Praça, F.G., Simões, S. (2015). Development, characterization, and skin delivery studies of related ultradeformable vesicles: transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 10, 5837-5851.

Bhadra, D., Jain, N.K., Umamaheshwari, R.B., & Jain, S. (2004). Ethosomes: a novel vesicular carrier for enhanced transdermal delivery of an antiIIIV agent. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 66(1), 72-81.

Boonsit, P., Pongpiachan, P., Julsrigival, S., & Karladee, D. (2010). Gamma oryzanol content in glutinous purple rice landrace varieties. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 9,151-157.

Bragagni, M., Mennini, N., Maestrelli, F., Cirri, M., & Mura, P. (2012). Comparative study of liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes as carriers for improving topical delivery of celecoxib. Drug Delivery, 19(7), 354–361.

Bulatao, R.M., Samin, J.P.A., Salazar, J.R., & Monserate, J.J. (2017). Encapsulation of anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extract using chitosanalginate nanoparticles. Journal of Food Research, 6(3), 40-47.

Das, S., Ng, W.K., & Tan, R.B.H. (2012) Are nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) better than solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs): Development, characterizations and comparative evaluations of clotrimazole-loaded SLNs and NLCs. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 47, 139-151.

Dubey, V., Mishra, D., & Jain, N.K. (2007). Melatonin loaded ethanolic liposomes: Physicochemical characterization and enhanced transdermal delivery. European Journal of Biopharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 67(2), 398–405.

Finnin, B.C., & Morgan, T.M. (1999).Transdermal penetration enhancers: Applications, limitations, and potential. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 88(10), 955–958.

Garg, V., Singh, H., Singh, B., & Beg, S. (2017). Systematic development of transethosomal gel system of piroxicam: Formulation optimization, in-vitro evaluation , and ex-vivo assessment. AAPS PharmSciTech, 18, 58–71.

Gondkar, S.B., Patil, N.R., & Saudagar R.B. (2017). Formulation development and characterization of etodolac loaded transethosomes for transdermal delivery. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 10(9), 3049-3057.

Kohli, A.K., & Alpar, H.O. (2004). Potential use of nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccine delivery: Effect of particle size and charge. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 275(1-2), 13-17.

Kumar, A., Pathak, K., & Bali, V. (2012). Ultra-adaptable nanovesicular systems: A carrier for systemic delivery of therapeutic agents. Drug Discovery Today, 17(21– 22), 1233–1241.

Kaur, C., & Ling, E-A. (2008). Antioxidants and neuroprotection in the adult and developing central nervous system. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15(29), 3068-3080.

Li, S., Qiu, Y., Zhang, S., & Gao, Y. (2012). Enhanced transdermal delivery of 18β-glycyrrhetic acid via elastic vesicles: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 38(7), 855- 865.

Lopez-Pintoet, J.M., Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M.L., & Rabasco, A.M. (2005). Effect of cholesterol and ethanol on dermal delivery from DPPC liposomes. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 298(1), 1-12.

Meng, S., Chen, Z., Yang, L., Zhang, W., Liu, D., Guo, J., ... Li, J. (2013). Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8, 3051–3060.

Nandan, D., & Shivalik, P. (2016). Ethanol based vesicular carriers in transdermal drug delivery: Nanoethosomes and transethosomes in focus. NanoWorld Journal, 2(3), 41-51.

Ogiso, T., Yamaguchi, T., Iwaki, M., Tanino, T., & Miyake, Y. (2001). Effect of positively and negatively charged liposomes on skin permeation of drugs. Journal of Drug Targeting, 9(1), 49–59.

Pandey, V., Golhani, D., & Shukla, R. (2015). Ethosomes: Versatile vesicular carriers for efficient transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents. Drug Delivery, 22(8), 988-100.

Pathak, P., & Nagarsenker, M. (2009). Formulation and evaluation of lidocaine lipid nanosystems for dermal delivery. An Official Journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, 10(3), 985–992.

Peanparkdee, M., Patrawart, J., & Iwamotob. S. (2019). Effect of extraction conditions on phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of bran extracts from Thai rice cultivars. Journal of Cereal Science, 86, 86-91.

Pitija, K., Nakornriab, M., Sriseadka, T., Vanavichit, A., & Wongpornchai, S. (2013). Anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity in bran extracts ofsome Thai black rice varieties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48, 300–308.

Plaitho, P. (2016). Preventive effect of oxidative stress in human intestinal cell line (Caco2-cell) of Kao Mak made from black glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L. variety Leum Phua). Science and Technology Journal, 24(5), 813- 830.

Podsedek, A. (2007). Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables a review. Food Science and Technology, 40(1), 1–11.

Prasanthi, D., & Lakshmi, PK., (2012). Development of ethosomes with Taguchi robust design-based studies for transdermal delivery of alfuzosin hydrochloride. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, 1(11), 370-375.

Ramachandran, R., & Shanmughavel, P. (2010). Preparation and characterization of biopolymeric nanoparticles used in drug delivery. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 47(1), 56–59.

Seekhaw, P., Mahatheeranont, S., Sookwong, P., Luangkamin, S., Na Lampang Neonplab, A., & Puangsombat, P. (2018). Phytochemical constituents of thai dark purple glutinous rice bran extract (Cultivar Luem Pua (Oryza sativa L.). Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 45(3), 1383-1395.

Singh, B., Pahuja, S., Kapil, R., & Ahuja, N. (2009). Formulation development of oral controlled release tablets of hydralazine: optimization of drug release and bioadhesive characteristics, Acta Pharma. 59, 1–13.

Song, C.K., Balakrishnan, P., Shim, CK., Chung, S.J., Chong, S., & Kim, D.D. (2012). A novel vesicular carrier, transethosome, for enhanced skin delivery of voriconazole: Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 92, 299–304.

Souto, E.B., Wissing, S.A., Barbosa, C.M., & Muller, R.H., (2004). Valuation of physical stability of SLN and NLC before and after incorporation into hydrogel formulations. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 58, 83-90.

Srisuwan, S., Sattayasai, J., Arkaravichien, T., Wongpornchai, S., Luangkamin, S., Seekhaw, P., & Na Lampang Noenplab, A. (2013). The effects of dark purple glutinous rice variety leum phua on scopolamineinduced memory deficits in mice. Srinagarind Medical Journal, 28(4), 219–222.

Verma, P., & Pathak, K. (2012). Nanosized ethanolic vesicles loaded with econazole nitrate for the treatment of deep fungal infections through topical gel formulation. Nanomedicine, 8(4), 489–496.

Verma, S., & Utreja, P. (2018). Transethosomes of econazole nitrate for transdermal delivery: Development, in-vitro characterization, and ex-vivo assessment. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, 6(3), 171-179.

Vichit, W., & Saewan, N. (2016). Effect of germination on antioxidant, anti-infammatory and keratinocyte proliferation of rice. International Food Research Journal, 23(5), 2019-2028.

Wattanuruk, D., Phasuk S., Nilsang, P., & Takolpuckdee, P. (2020). Total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities of Khaow-Mak extracts from various colored rice. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science, 13(1), 10-18.

Zakir, F., Vaidya, B., Goyal, A.K., Malik, B., & Vyas, S.P. (2010). Development and characterization of oleic acid vesicles for the topical delivery of fluconazole. Drug Delivery, 17(4), 238-248.




How to Cite

Wattanuruk, D. (2023). Optimization of Transethosome by Varying Dark Purple Glutinous Rice Variety Leum Phua (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa) Extracts and Rice Bran Oil under Hot Method. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science, 15(1), 37–44. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/sdust/article/view/260617



Original Articles