Characteristics of Flattened Rice Flour Used with Daifuku


  • Yotsinee Huadong Department of Nutrition and Culinary Arts for Health Capability and Anti-aging Wellness, School of Culinary Arts, Suan Dusit University
  • Tita Foophow Department of Nutrition and Culinary Arts for Health Capability and Anti-aging Wellness, School of Culinary Arts, Suan Dusit University


Flattened rice, Flour, Properties, Viscosity, Daifuku


Flattened rice, an immature sticky rice product, contains high nutritional values and bioactive compounds. Based on its health values, this rice has been used as a functional ingredient in food. The objective of this study was to characterize the properties of sticky rice flour with substitution of flattened rice flour at 0-100% on Daifuku. Flattened rice flour was green-yellow in color and had very low amylose content (3.34%). The starch granule of flattened rice flour revealed an apparent pigment of phenolic compound and/or chlorophyll. According to pasting properties, peak viscosity, trough viscosity and breakdown of flattened rice flour were less than that of sticky rice flour. The FTIR spectra patterns of flattened rice flour showed it consisted of sticky rice polysaccharide structure as the main proportion. Daifuku with flattened rice flour at 75% had the highest sensory scores in all attributes especially in overall acceptance and texture. For nutritional analysis based on the calculated data, Daifuku with flattened rice flour had higher contents of calcium, iron and vitamin B1 than the control Daifuku. Therefore, the favorable properties of flattened rice flour and Daifuku are useful for further nutritional food product development.


Download data is not yet available.


American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC). (2000). Approved methods (10th ed.). Minnesota: Author.

Basnet, P., Amarasiriwardena, D., Wu, F., Fu, Z., & Zhang, T. (2016). Investigation of tissue level distribution of functional groups and associated trace metals in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) using FTIR and LA-ICP-MS. Microchemical Journal, 127, 152-159.

Boonchai, C. (2020). Culinary of Asia I. Bangkok: Graphic Site.

Chang, H., Kao, M.J., Chen, T.L., Chen, C.H., Cho, K.C., & Lai, X.R. (2013). Characterization of natural dye extracted from wormwood and purple cabbage for dye-sensitized solar cells. International Journal of Photoenergy, 159502.

Dadwal, V., Joshi, R., & Gupta, M. (2021). Formulation, characterization and in vitro digestion of polysaccharide reinforced Ca-alginate microbeads encapsulating Citrus medica L. phenolics. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 152, 112290.

Ekasit, O., & Jiraporn, B. (2013). Some physical characteristics and bioactive compounds of young flattened rice (Khao-Mao). International Food Research Journal, 20(3), 1327-1332.

Foophow, T., Phoohinkong, W., Lertkowit, P., & Ketkoom, N. (2020). Fortification of iron in brownies with Sinlek brown rice flour. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 42(5), 1027-1033.

Govindaraju, I., Pallen, S., Umashankar, S., Mal, S.S., Kaniyala Melanthota, S., … Mazumder, N. (2020). Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of rice and corn starch. Microscopy Research and Technique, 83(5), 490-498.

Heo, H., Baik, B.K., Kang, C.H., Choo, B.K., & Park, C.S. (2012). Influence of amylose content on cooking time and textural properties of white salted noodles. Food Science and Biotechnology, 21(2), 345-353.

Institute of Nutrition. (2013). Nutrient calculation computer software INMUCAL-Nutrients V3 database NB1. Nakornpathom, Thailand: Mahidol University.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (2007). International Standard ISO/IEC 6647-2: 2015-RiceDetermination of amylose content, Part 2: Routine Method, 2nd Ed., Geneva.

Itthivadhanapong, P., & Sangnark, A. (2016). Effects of substitution of black glutinous rice flour for wheat flour on batter and cake properties. International Food Research Journal, 23(3), 1190-1198.

Ji, Y., Zhu, K., Qian, H., & Zhou, H. (2007). Staling of cake prepared from rice flour and sticky rice flour. Food Chemistry, 104, 53-58.

Keeratipibul, S., Luangsakul, N., & Lertsatchayarn, T. (2008). The effect of Thai glutinous rice cultivars, grain length and cultivating locations on the quality of rice cracker (arare). LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41, 1934-1943.

Kumar, S., Haq, R.U., & Prasad, K. (2018). Studies on physicochemical, functional, pasting and morphological characteristics of developed extra thin flaked rice. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17(3), 259-267.

Kumar. S., & Prasad, K. (2017). Optimization of flaked rice dry roasting in common salt and studies on associated changes in chemical, nutritional, optical, physical, rheological and textural attributes. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(6), 1380-1392.

Lu, S., Lu, S., Cik, T.T., Lii, C.Y., Lai, P., & Chen, H.H. (2013). Effect of amylose content on structure, texture and α-amylase reactivity of cooked rice. LWT -Food Science and Technology, 54(1), 224-228.

Man, J., Lin, L., Wang, Z., Wang, Y., Liu, Q., & Wei, C. (2014). Different structures of heterogeneous starch granules from high-amylose rice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(46), 11254-11263.

Man, J., Yang, Y., Zhang, C., Zhou, X., Dong, Y., Zhang, F., . . . Wei, C. (2012). Structural changes of high-amylose rice starch residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(36), 9332-9341.

Miraji, K.F., Linnemann, A.R., Fogliano, V., Laswai, H.S., & Capuano, E. (2020). Nutritional quality and in vitro digestion of immature rice-based processed products. Food & Function, 11(9), 7611-7625.

Miraji, K.F., Linnemann, A.R., Fogliano, V., Laswai, H.S., & Capuano, E. (2021). Dry-heat processing at different conditions impact the nutritional composition and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of immature rice-based products. Food & Function, 12(16), 7527- 7545.

Nachaisin, M., Nillseangrat, P., & Sutthapintu, A. (2016). Improvement qualities for shredded Thai-style instant rice. Journal of Research for Development Social and Community, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, 3(2), 88-95.

Ogawa, Y., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J., & Wood, D.F. (2003). Histological structures of cooked rice grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(24), 7019- 7023.

Qin, Y., Liu, C., Jiang, S., Cao, J., Xiong, L., & Sun, Q. (2016). Functional properties of glutinous rice flour by dry-heat treatment. PLoS One, 11(8), e0160371.

Rahmani, N., & Mani-Varnosfaderani, A. (2022). Quality control, classification, and authentication of Iranian rice varieties using FT-IR spectroscopy and sparse chemometric methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 112, 104650.

Rani, M.R.S., & Bhattacharya, K.R. (1995). Microscopy of rice starch granules during cooking. Starch, 47(9), 334-337.

Ratseewo, J., Warren, F.J., & Siriamornpun, S. (2019). The influence of starch structure and anthocyanin content on the digestibility of Thai pigmented rice. Food Chemistry, 298, 124949.

Salitlertthanasin, P. (2017). Product development of Thai rice cereal (Khao-Mao) bar with garlic flavor and its shelf-life using accelerated method. Bangkok, Thailand: Assumption University, BSc special project.

Soe, M.T., Chitropas, P., Pongjanyakul, T., Limpongsa, E., & Jaipakdee, N. (2020). Thai glutinous rice starch modified by ball milling and its application as a mucoadhesive polymer. Carbohydrate Polymers, 232, 115812.

Sompong, R., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martin, G., & Berghofer, E. (2011). Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chemistry, 124(1), 132-140.

Tamura, M., Nagai, T., Hidaka, Y., Noda, T., Yokoe, M., & Ogawa, Y. (2014). Changes in histological tissue structure and textural characteristics of rice grain during cooking process. Food Structure, 1(2), 164-170.

Voraputhaporn, W. (2009). Production and development of breakfast cereal products from young puffed rice. In Proceedings of the Khon Kaen University University annual Conference: Sustainable Rural Development (pp.30-37). Khon Kaen, Thailand: Khon Kaen University.

Wang, H., Wu, Y., Wang, N., Yang, L., & Zhou, Y. (2019). Effect of water content of high-amylose corn starch and glutinous rice starch combined with lipids on formation of starch–lipid complexes during deep-fat frying. Food Chemistry, 278, 515-522.

Wongbasg, C., & Jangchud, K. (2011). Effect of ingredients on the quality of Daifuku from germinated glutinous brown rice flour. In Proceedings of 49th Kasetsart University Annual Conference (pp.173-181). Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University.




How to Cite

Huadong, Y., & Foophow, T. (2023). Characteristics of Flattened Rice Flour Used with Daifuku. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science, 15(3), 1–9. Retrieved from



Original Articles