Application of oil replenishment and mixed adsorbents technology to enhance the shelf life of frying oil used in chicken drumsticks processing

Main Article Content

Bhundit Innawong
Chatchalai Siasakul
Patchimaporn Udomkun


The effects of mixed adsorbents (bentonite: activated clay: diatomaceous earth in a ratio of 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) and fresh oil replenishment (10, 20, and 30%) on the physicochemical properties of recycled soybean oil while deep-fat frying chicken drumsticks for 3 days were studied. The used oil with 1% acid value was used as the initial frying medium. Free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), dielectric constant (Food Oil Sensor (FOS) reading), and color (L*, a*, b*) were continuously monitored. Using fresh oil replenishment processes with mixed adsorbents significantly resulted in lower FFA, PV, and FOS readings compared to the control. The L*, a*, and b* values of the treated oils were also improved. Application of mixed adsorbents without fresh oil replenishment was not effective in enhancing the physico-chemical qualities of the used oil. Higher replenishment levels resulted in improved oil quality. Replenishment levels at 20 and 30% potentially retarded deterioration of frying oil.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


Akoh, C. C., and Reynolds, A. E. (2001). Recovery of used frying oils. U.S. Patent 6,187,355 B1.

AOCS. (1990). The Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS. 4th ed., Champaign, IL.: AOCS Press.

Bhattacharya, A. B., Sajilata, M. G., Tiwari, S. R., and Singhal, R. S. (2008). Regeneration of thermally polymerized frying oils with adsorbents. Food Chemistry, 110, 562-570.

Bheemreddy, R. M., Chinnan, M. S., Pannu, K. S., and Reynolds, A. E. (2002). Active treatment of frying oil for enhanced fry-life. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 67(4), 1478-1484.

Blumenthal, M. M. (1991). A new look at the chemistry and physics of deep-fat frying. Food Technology, 45(2), 68-71, 94.

Boki, K., Shinoda, S., and Ohno, S. (1989). Effects of filtering through bleaching media on decrease of peroxide value of autoxidized soybean oil. Journal of Food Science, 54(6), 1601-1603.

Bou, R., Navas, J. A., Tres, R., Conody, F., and Guardiola, F. (2012). Quality assessment of frying fats and fried snacks during continuous deep-fat frying at different large-scale producers. Food Control, 27(1), 254-267.

Che Man, Y. B., and Jaswir, I. (2000). Effect of rosemary and sage extracts on frying performance of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying. Food Chemistry, 69, 301-307.

Choe, E., and Min, D. B. (2007). Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. Journal of Food Science, 72(5), R77-86.

Cuesta, C., Sanchez-Muniz, F. J., Garrido-Polonio, C., Lopez-Varela, S., and Arroyo, R. (1993). Thermooxidative and hydrolytic changes in sunflower oil used in frying with a fast turnover of fresh oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 70, 1069-1073.

Fritsch, C. W., Egberg, D. C., and Magnuson, J. S. (1979). Changes in dielectric constant as a measure of frying oil deterioration. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 56, 746-750.

Haminton, R. J. (1999). The chemistry of rancidity in foods. In Rancidity in Foods (Allen, J. C. and Haminton, R. J., eds.), 3rd, pp. 1-53. New York: Blackie Academic and Professional.

Hein, M., Henning, N., and Isengard, H. D. (1998). Determination of total polar parts with new methods for the quality survey of frying fats and oils. Talanta, 447-454.

Innawong, B., Mallikarjunan, P., and Marcy, J. E. (2004a). The determination of frying oil quality using a chemosensory system. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37, 35-41.

Innawong, B., Mallikarjunan, P., Irudayaraj, J., and Marcy, J. E. (2004b). The determination of frying oil quality using fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37, 23-28.

Jacobson, G. A. (1967). Quality control of commercial deep-fat frying. Food Technology, 21(2), 43-48.

Kun, T. Y. (1990). Improvements in the Frying Quality of Vegetable Oil by Blending with Palm Olein. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM). Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia: Palm oil development No. 15.

Kusucharid, C., Anuvat, J., and Porjai, T. (2009). Changes in characteristics of palm oil during vacuum and atmospheric frying conditions of sweet potato. Kasetsart Journal of Natural Science, 43, 298-304.

Lawson, H. (1995). Deep fat frying. In Food Oils and Fats: Technology, Utilization, and Nutrition (Lawson, H., ed.), pp. 66-115. New York: Chapman and Hall.

Lin, S., Akoh, C. C., and Reynolds, A. E. (2001). Recovery of used frying oils with adsorbent combinations: refrying and frequent oil replenishment. Food Research International, 34, 159-166.

Lynch, M. P., Faustman, C., Silbart, L. K., Rood, D., and Furr, H. C. (2001). Detection of lipid-derived aldehydes and aldehyde: Protein adducts in vitro and in beef. Journal of Food Science, 66, 1093-1099.

Mancini-Filho, J., Smith, L. M., Creveling, R. K., and Al-Shaikh, H. F. (1986). Effects of selected chemical treatments on quality of fat used for deep frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 63(11), 1452-1456.

McNeill, J., Kakuda, Y., and Kamel, B. (1986). Improving the quality of used frying oils by treatment with activated carbon and silica. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 63(12), 1564-1567.

Moreira, R. G., Castell-Perez, E. M., and Barrufet, M. A. (1999). Deep-fat frying: Fundamentals and Applications. Maryland: Aspen Publishers, Inc. 350 p.

Romero, A., Cuesta, C., and Sanchez-Muniz, F. J. (1998). Effect of oil replenishment during deepfat frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high-oleic acid sunflower oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 75, 161-167.

Romero, A., Cuesta, C., and Sanchez-Muniz, F. J. (2000). Cyclic fatty acid monomers and thermoxidative alteration compounds formed during frying of frozen foods in extra virgin olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 77, 1169-1175.

Saguy, I. S., and Dana, D. (2003). Integrated approach to deep fat frying: engineering, nutrition, health and consumer aspects. Journal of Food Engineering, 56, 143-152.

Santos, C. S. P., Molina-Garcia, L., Cunha, S. C., and Casal, S. (2018). Fried potatoes: Impact of prolonged frying in monounsaturated oil. Food Chemistry, 243, 192-201.

Shyu, S. L., Hau, L. B., and Hwang, L. S. (1998). Effect of vacuum frying on the oxidative stability of oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 75(10), 1393-1398.

Song, J. H., Kim, M. J., Kim, Y. J., and Lee, J. H. (2017). Monitoring changes in acid value, total polar material, and antioxidant capacity of oil used for frying chicken. Food Chemistry, 220, 306-312.

Srivastava, Y., and Semwal, A. D. (2015). A study on monitoring of frying performance and oxidative stability of virgin coconut oil (VCO) during continuous/prolonged deep fat frying process using chemical and FTIR spectroscopy. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2), 984-991.

Stauffer, C. E. (1996). Frying fats. In Fats and Oils (Stauffer, C. E., ed.), pp. 81-90. St. Paul: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.

Stevenson, S. G., Vaisey-Jenser, M., and Eskin, N. A. M. (1984). Quality control in the use of deep frying oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 61, 1102-1108.

Totani, N., Tateishi, S., Chiue, H., and Mori, T. (2012). Color and chemical properties of oil used for deep frying on a large scale. Journal of Oleo Science, 61(3), 121-126.

Tyagi, V. K., and Vasishtha, A. K. (1996). Changes in the characteristics and composition of oils during deep-fat frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 73(4), 499-506.

Urbančič, S., Kolar, M. H., Dimitrijević, D., Demšar, L., and Vidrih, R. (2014). Stabilisation of sunflower oil and reduction of acrylamide formation of potato with rosemary extract during deep-fat frying. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 57(2), 671-678.

Udomkun, P., Innawong, B., Siasakul, C., and Okafor, C. (2018). Utilization of mixed adsorbents to extend frying oil life cycle in poultry processing. Food Chemistry, 248, 225-229.

Yates, R. A., and Cardwell, J. D. (1992). Adsorptive capacity of active filter aids for used cooking oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 69(9), 894-897.

Zahir, E., Saeed, R., Hameed, M. A., and Yousuf, A. (2017). Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, S3870-3876.

Zhang, Q., Saleh, A. S. M., Chen, J., and Shen, Q. (2012). Chemical alterations taken place during deep-fat frying based on certain reaction products: A review. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 165(6), 662-681.

Zhu, Z. Y., Yates, R. A., and Caldwell, J. D. (1994). The determination of active filter aid adsorption sites by temperature-programmed desorption. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 71(2), 189-194.