Application of SWAT and CLUE-S Models in Streamflow and Land Use Prediction in the Upper Khwae-Noi Subwatershed, Nakhonthai District, Phitsanulok Province

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Pimnipa Baiku
Piyapong Tongdeenok
Naruemol Kaewjampa


          The application of SWAT and CLUE-S models in streamflow and land use prediction in the upper Khwae-Noi subwatershed, Nakhonthai district, Phitsanulok province, aims to study and forecast the land use change and estimate the streamflow in the subwatershed. The CLUE-S land-use change and SWAT hydrological models were used to forecast the future land-use and streamflow changes in 2013, 2018, and 2023.

The results were found that in 2023 most land-use types would tend to increase from 2018, including agricultural areas, water bodies area, and constructed areas with 42.16%, 6.44%, and 1.39%, respectively, while the forest area and miscellaneous area would decline by 45.16% and 4.83%, respectively. The streamflow results indicated that the SWAT model used to estimate the streamflow had an adequate efficiency in estimating the streamflow with R2 more than 80 percent. The streamflow measurements from the hydrological station (N.36) for calibrating and validating the model during 2000 – 2018, as indicated by the statistical parameters R2, NSE, and PBIAS of 0.80, 0.74, and 27.10, respectively. The estimated average yearly streamflow during 2013 and 2018 were 107.37 and 70.23 mcm, respectively. The forecasted streamflow in the future (2023) was slightly higher than in 2018, with an increase of 12.06%. The study of hydrological characteristics during 2013, 2018, and 2023, under future land use conditions with the percentage of the rainfall-runoff ratio, found that the rainfall-runoff was the highest in 2013, followed by 2023 and 2018, at 14.87 %, 13.59 %, and 12.17 %, respectively. The results indicate that deforestation and the expansion of the agriculture area significantly increased the streamflow during the initial transition stage. However, the streamflow could decrease considerably in the upper Khwae Noi subwatershed in the long term due to an unbalanced structure of the watershed ecosystem.


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Baiku, P., Tongdeenok, P., & Kaewjampa, N. (2021). Application of SWAT and CLUE-S Models in Streamflow and Land Use Prediction in the Upper Khwae-Noi Subwatershed, Nakhonthai District, Phitsanulok Province. Thai Journal of Forestry, 40(2), 39–55. Retrieved from
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