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Termite mushrooms are known to have a symbiotic relationship with fungus-growing termites. Despite high diversity of both fungus-growing termites and their fungal symbionts in Thailand, the detail about species identification and systemic study about their relationship is little. Thus, the aims of this study are to identify termite mushrooms and fungus-growing termites using morphological characteristics together with DNA barcoding to confirm species, and to study relationship between fungus-growing termites and termite mushrooms. In this study, we focused on Termitomyces microcarpus collected from Sakaerat Biosphere Reserves We identified 10 samples of T. microcarpus and confirmed that they were identical to Termitomyces sp. Group3 and T. microcarpus in the GenBank database (99-100 % identity), consistent with their morphological characters. Furthermore, we found that four termite species from four termite nests were related with T. microcarpus. The result showed that these mushrooms have low specific interaction with termites because T. microcarpus were related with more than two termite genera (Macrotermes, Odontotermes and Hypotermes). Two of the fungus-growing termite species (Macrotermes annandalei and Hypotermes makhamensis) associated with this mushroom had 97 % identity with the termite species in the databases, suggesting that they were belonging to different subspecies that did not have the sequences in the database. Thus, further study of fungus-growing termites in Thailand will be helpful to increase the information in the database and facilitate species identification by DNA barcoding.
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