Effects of Dietary Essential Oils Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Non-Specific Immunity and Disease Resistance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Main Article Content

นพดล ศุกระกาญจน์
กฤษณะ เรืองคล้าย
พันธสิทธิ์ โชคสวัสดิกร

Abstract

The present study investigated the effects of essential oils extracted from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) and peppermint (Mentha cordifolia) as feed supplement on growth performance, blood parameters, non-specific immunity and disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The fish were fed with diets supplemented with lemongrass, Kaffir lime peel and peppermint essential oil at the same ratio of 0.5 ml/kg feed and a control group was fed with basal diet. After 75 days of feeding, growth performance, blood parameters and non-specific immunity of fish were investigated. After feeding trial, fish were also challenged with S. agalactiae and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that peppermint essential oil at 0.5 ml/kg feed significantly improved final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate (p < 0.05). All supplemented diets showed significantly increased total erythrocyte count, hematocrit levels and hemoglobin (p < 0.05). In addition, fish fed essential oil supplemented diets showed no significant increases of both lysozyme activity and survival rate following S. agalactiae infection, compared with those of the control group. The results indicated that peppermint essential oil supplementation potentially improved growth performance, some blood parameters and tendency toward decreased mortality after bacterial infection of cultured tilapia.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
วิทยาศาสตร์ชีวภาพ
Author Biographies

นพดล ศุกระกาญจน์

คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยทักษิณ วิทยาเขตพัทลุง ตำบลบ้านพร้าว อำเภอป่าพะยอม จังหวัดพัทลุง 93210

กฤษณะ เรืองคล้าย

คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยทักษิณ วิทยาเขตพัทลุง ตำบลบ้านพร้าว อำเภอป่าพะยอม จังหวัดพัทลุง 93210

พันธสิทธิ์ โชคสวัสดิกร

คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยทักษิณ วิทยาเขตพัทลุง ตำบลบ้านพร้าว อำเภอป่าพะยอม จังหวัดพัทลุง 93210

References

[1] Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D. and Idaomar, M., 2008, Biological effects of essential oils, Rev. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46: 446-475.
[2] Burt, S., 2004, Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94: 223-53.
[3] Zhang, K.Y., Yan, F., Keen, C.A. and Waldroup, P.W., 2005, Evaluation of microencapsulated essential oils and organic acids in diets for broiler chickens, Int. J. Poult. Sci. 4: 612-619.
[4] Alcicek, A., Bozkurt, M. and Cabuk, M., 2003, The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected herbs growing wild in Turkey on broiler performance, S Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 33: 89-94.
[5] Kommera, S.K., Mateo, R.D., Neher, F.J. and Kim, S.W., 2006, Phytobiotics and organic acids as potential alternatives to the use of antibiotics in nursery pig diets, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19: 1784-1789.
[6] Zheng, Z.L., Tan, J.Y.W., Liu, H.Y., Zou, X.H., Xiang, X. and Wang, K.Y., 2009, Evaluation of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on growth, antioxidant effect and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Aquaculture 292: 214-218.
[7] Peterson, B.C., Bosworth, B.G., Wood, M.L., Li, M.H. and Beltran, R., 2011, Essential oils increase weight gain in channel catfish, Global Aquacult. Advocate 14: 80-82.
[8] Giannenas, I., Triantafillou, El., Stavrakakis, S., Margaroni, M., Mavridis, S., Steiner, T. and Karagouni, E., 2012, Assessment of dietary supplementation with carvacrol or thymol containing feed additives on performance, intestinal microbiota and antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Aquaculture 350-353: 26-32.
[9] Hammer, K.A., Carson, C.F. and Riley, T.V., 1999, Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts, J. Appl. Microbiol. 86: 985-990.
[10] Masamba, W.R.L., Kamanula, J.F.M., Henry, E.M.T. and Nyirenda, G.K.C., 2003, Extraction and analysis of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil: An essential oil with potential to control the Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncatus) in stored products in Malawi, Malawi J. Agric. Sci. 2: 56-64.
[11] Al-Saadi, N., H. M., Ahmad, N. S. and Sa-eed, S., E., 2009, Determination of some chemical compounds and the effect of oil extract from orange peel on some pathogens, J. Kerbana Univ. 7(2) Scientific: 33-39.
[12] Schmidt, E., Bail, S., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Atanasova, T., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A. and Jirovetz, L., 2009, Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita, Nat. Prod. Commun. 4: 1107-1112.
[13] Garcia-Garcia, R., Aurelio, L.M. and Palou, E., 2011, Bactericidal action of binary and ternary mixtures of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol against Listeria innocua, J. Food Sci. 76: M95-100.
[14] Tsai, M.L., Wu, C.T., Lin, T.F., Lin, W.C., Huang, Y.C. and Yang, C.H., 2013, Chemical composition and biological properties of essential oils of two mint species, Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 12: 577-582.
[15] Habsari, R.A. and Noorhamdani, W., 2018, Chemical composition of oil fraction Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) as antibacterial activity of E. coli, J. Pure Appl. Chem. Res. 7: 32-38.
[16] Blaxhall, P.C. and Daisley, K.W., 1973, Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood, J. Fish Biol. 5: 771-781.
[17] Sukrakanchana, N., 2006, Fish Diseases Laboratory Manual, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Songkhla, 104 p. (in Thai)
[18] Larsen, H.N. and Snieszko, S.F., 1961, Comparison of various methods of determination of hemoglobin in trout blood, Prog. Fish Cult. 23: 8-17.
[19] Parry, R.M., Chandau, R.C. and Shahani, R.M., 1965, A rapid and sensitive assay of muramidase, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 119: 384-386.
[20] Brum, A., Pereira, S.A., Owatari, M.S., Chagas, E.C., Chaves, F.C.M., Mouriño, J.L.P. and Martins, M.L., 2017, Effect of dietary essential oils of clove basil and ginger on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae, Aquaculture 468: 235-243.
[21] Immanuel, G., Uma, R.P., Iyapparaj, P., Citarasu, T., Punitha, P.S.M., Michael, B.M. and Palavesam, A., 2009, Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, J. Fish Biol. 74: 1462-1475.
[22] Acar, Ü., Kesbiç, O.S., Yılmaz, S., Gültepe, N. and Türker, A., 2015, Evaluation of the effects of essential oil extracted fromsweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) on growth rate of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and possible disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae, Aquaculture 437: 282-286.
[23] Malayoglu, H., Baysal, S., Misirlioglu, Z., Polat, M., Yilmaz, H. and Turan, N., 2010, Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets, Brit. Poult. Sci.
51: 67-80.
[24] Hernandez, F, Madrid, J., Garcia, V., Orengo, J. and Megias, M.D., 2004, Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance digestibility and digestive organ size, Poult. Sci. 83: 169-174.
[25] Cowan, M.M., 1999, Plant products as antimicrobial agents, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564-582.
[26] Baba, E., Acar, U., Öntaş, C., Kesbiç, O.S. and Yılmaz, S., 2016, Evaluation of Citrus limon peels essential oil on growth performance, immune response of Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus challenged with Edwardsiella tarda, Aquaculture 465: 13-18.
[27] Ngugi, C.C., Oyoo-Okoth, E. and Muchiri, M., 2016, Effects of dietary levels of essential oil (EO) extract from bitter lemon (Citrus limon) fruit peels on growth, biochemical, haemato-immunological parameters and disease resistance in juvenile Labeo victorianus fingerlings challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, Aquacult. Res. 48: 2253-2265.
[28] Haghighi, M., Pourmoghim, H. and Rohani, M.S., 2018, Effect of Origanum vulgare extract on immune responses and heamatological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Oceanography Fish Open Access J. 6: 555687.
[29] Awad, E., Austin, D. and Lyndon, A.R., 2013, Effect of black cumin seed oil (Nigella sativa) and nettle extract (Quercetin) in enhancement of immunity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Aquaculture 388-391: 193-197.
[30] Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P., 2010, Potential of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) oil to control Streptococcus iniae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Fish. Sci. 76: 287-293.
[31] Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P., 2009, Protective effect of clove oil supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococus graviae infection in tilapia, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73: 2085-2089.
[32] Starliper, C.E., Ketola, H.G., Noyes, A.D., Schill, W.B., Henson, F.G., Chalupnicki, M.A. and Dittman, D.E., 2015, An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp., J. Adv. Res. 6: 89-97.
[33] Cristani, M., Arrigo, D.M., Mandalari, G., Castelli, F., Sarpietro, M. G., Micieli, D., Venuti, V., Bisignano, G., Saija, A. and Trombetta, D., 2007, Interaction of four monoter-penes contained in essential oils with model membranes: Implications for their antibacterial activity, J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 6300-6308.
[34] Marcusso, P.F., Aguinaga, J.Y., Claudiano, G.S., Eto, S.F., Fernandes, D.C., Mello, H., Marinho Neto, F.A., Salvador, R., Moraes, J.R.E. and Moraes, F.R., 2015, Influence of temperature on Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Nile tilapia, Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 52: 57-62.