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In biology, exclusive paternal care (EPC) means any behavior that only a father or a male animal has after post-fertilization, also called spawning, to help and increase the offspring’s survival rate. In the case of single father family, the mother or female will not show maternal care but leave after egg laying. Based on the review of the literature in invertebrate animals, this behavior is considered to be a very uncommon form of post-fertilization parental investment. However, EPC in invertebrates is found in some species for instances of the following 3 phylums: (1) Annelida; such as Neanthes (Nareis) acuminate (2) Arthropoda; such as harvestman: Zygopachylus and Lepchana, Millipede: Brachycybe nodulosa, Yamasinaium noduligerum, Sea spider: Achelia simplissima, Giant water bug: Kirkaldyia deyrolli and Abedus herberti; Assassin bug: Rhynocoris tristis and Zelus sp., Leaf-footed bugs: Scolopocerus sp. and Plunentis sp., Thrips: Holothrips karnyi, and (3) Mollusca; such as the gastropod sea snail Solenosteira macrospira and others. Details of EPC behavior in each animal taxa, including the common behavior of the single father among invertebrates, are presented in this article.
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