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The irrigation ﬂuid given during arthroscopy and cystoscopy provides pressure and ﬂow rate between the joint space and the bladder, thus pushing the debris occurring during surgery. The crisp view of the surgical ﬁeld is clear. This study aims to investigate the operation of the automated ﬂuid irrigation using a gravity pump. The advantage of this system is the safer use of the gravity pump, which reduces the risk of malfunctions from the electric pump that may cause damage to nearby tissues during surgery. Another advantage is to provide a steady ﬂuid ﬂow. From the principle of Bernoulli's equation, the design of the automated gravity pump was to maintain the difference between operating height and irrigation ﬂuid elevation (Z1). The 0.194 kg of lost mass, mloss, was calculated and used to control motors in lifting the 0.011 mH2O steps periodically for both left and right buckets of irrigation ﬂuid to compensate for lost irrigation ﬂuid elevation. This process kept going until the irrigation ﬂuid of each bucket was completely exhausted and alternating operations throughout the surgery. In the study’s design, the pressure heads of the operating automated ﬂuid irrigation were set at 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, the Z1 and the pressures from the pressure gauge were measured. The above results were compared between both pressure heads, which were converted from the measured Z1 and pressure gauge, and the pressure heads, which were set as mentioned previously.
Finally, automated ﬂuid irrigation was recorded alternating between left and right buckets to irrigate ﬂuid at the pressure heads. This test ended when the second irrigated bucket was exhausted. The results of automated ﬂuid irrigation showed that measured Z1 was in the range of 0.811 to 0.822 mH2O with -0.58% to 0.76% difference compared with set pressure head at 60 mmHg; in the range of 1.082 to 1.093 mH2O with -0.51% to 0.48% difference compared with set pressure head at 80 mmHg; and in range of 1.082 to 1.093 mH2O compared with -0.33% to 0.47% difference compared with set pressure head at 100 mmHg. It was also shown that pressures from the pressure gauge were 0.080, 0.105, and 0.135 bar with 0.00%, -1.55%, and 1.26% difference compared with set pressure head at 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, respectively. The process of automated ﬂuid irrigation showed that this command processing unit worked properly to control motors and solenoid valves as designed by lifting to get designated head pressure and alternating the left bucket to right bucket to irrigate ﬂuid continuously. It was concluded that the lost mass was used to determine the working conditions of this automated ﬂuid irrigation with a gravity pump. It worked properly as designed to automatically control the motors and solenoid valves for ﬂuid irrigation at the set pressure head. Therefore, this equipment could give clear image quality, continuous ﬂuid irrigation according to the doctor's requirements, and reduced risk of abnormal pressure from the electric pump during surgery.