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The objective of this research was to study the physical characteristics of starch and starch granules, the composition and chemical structure, and to analyze the similarities and variations in flour characteristics among six species of the local yams in Dioscorea spp., which varied in physical appearance, color, the texture. The yam species included Mun-Jao-Ma-Praw, Mun-Khao, Mun-Talab, Mun-Meu Seu, Mun-On, and Mun-Lued-Nok. The extracted flour was analyzed to determine the color, starch granules, elemental composition, crystal structure, and functional groups by colorimeter, SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR, respectively. It was found that the physical characteristic of local yam flour was significantly different from the color index. The flour from Mun-Meu-Seu had the maximum white brightness, while the reddest and yellowest color in Mun-Lued-Nok flour was presented. According to the starch granule examination, it could be classified the starch granule of yams in this family into two types. The starch granule appearance of the flour from Mun-Jao Ma-Praw, Mun-Khao, Mun-Talab, and Mun-Lued-Nok are enormous and oval in shape with a similar amount of carbon atoms as oxygen, or slightly more, in compared to the starch granules from Mun-Meu-Seu and Mun-On was narrow and polyhedral in physical form which It possessed more carbon atoms than oxygen. The characteristics of the Dioscorea family of flour from local yams could be confirmed from the analysis of the crystal structure and functional group, which revealed that all six species in Dioscorea spp. have B type which contains more water molecules than other sorts in the crystal structures. Moreover, the functional groups of the chemical structure of flours in this category were identical. The investigation might serve as a database that can contribute to regional value enhancement and protection of indigenous vegetation.
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