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Liver cancer remains the first leading cause of cancer death in Thai patients. Nowadays, cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy often cause side effects. The use of natural products may be an alternative for alleviating these side effects. Plants are potential sources of natural products exhibiting antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells. Mammea siamensis (or Saraphi) is a Thai medicinal herb rich in coumarins and xanthones, which has been demonstrated to possess anticancer properties in many cancer cell lines. The aims of this study were to evaluate total phenolic content, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extracts from flowers, twigs and peels of M. siamensis. The results showed that 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacities of the extracts from flowers, twigs and peels of M. siamensis were 21.77±0.21, 19.2±0.21, and 10.65±0.3 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g, which were correlated with their total phenolic contents (43.34±0.51, 43.11±1.01, and 29.22±0.83 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/ g). Moreover, the methanolic extracts from flowers and twigs exhibited greater antiproliferative activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells than that from peels, as shown by the IC50 values of 26.97±3.62, 27.99±1.04, and 187.19±4.71 µg/mL, respectively. This study concluded that there was a correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in the extracts. The methanolic extracts from flower and twigs of M. siamensis also possessed antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cells. The bioactive compounds from the active parts of M. siamensis should be identified in further studies.
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