Genotoxicity Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Thai Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.) using Micronucleus Assay in V79 Cell Line

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Pranom Puchadapirom
Maitree Suttajit
Suchitra Thongpraditchote
Worawan Kitphati
Achiraya Tammasakchai


The leaves of Perilla frutescens (PF) (Nga-Kee-Mon) have been widely used as a functional food and a traditional medicine for various therapeutic applications. This plant possesses many biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, safety information, especially toxicity studies are very limited. This study aimed to investigate the genotoxic effect of PF leaf extract on fibroblast V79 cell line using micronucleus (MN) test. The cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI), percent cytostasis and MN frequencies were determined in V79 cells treated with the extract (100-250 µg/mL). The results showed that in the test condition without S9 enzyme fraction, the extract at the highest concentration (250 µg/mL) exhibited a higher cytotoxic effect than that with S9, as shown in percent cytostasis of the cells (57.47% and 34.00%, respectively). However, PF extract at all concentrations, with or without S9, did not significantly increase the MN frequency of the cells when compared to the negative control. The results suggested that PF leaf extract had neither direct nor indirect (metabolite form) genotoxic effect on V79 cells, thus enabling its use as a safe food supplement and medicine. Nevertheless, subchronic and chronic toxicity studies in animals should be further performed to provide more information regarding its long-term safety.


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