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Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The most common cancer type in women is breast cancer, whereas the predominant type in men is liver cancer. The major problem of cancer treatment is resistance of cancer cells to the existing anticancer agents. Therefore, new treatment options are needed. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the enzyme in prostaglandin synthetic pathway that is frequently overexpressed in carcinoma and is associated with cancer progression, suggesting the possible exploiting its as promising targets by COX inhibitors, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and five NSAIDs against HEPG2 and HCC1937 cell lines using MTT assay. NSAIDs were found to significantly inhibit the viability of HEPG2 and HCC1937 cells. In addition, the combination of 5-FU and aspirin showed synergistic and additive activities in HEPG2 and HCC1937 cancer cells, respectively. On the other hand, the combination of 5-FU and celecoxib showed synergistic and antagonistic activities in HEPG2 and HCC 1937 cancer cells, respectively. The use of 5-FU in combination with celecoxib in breast cancer should be avoided due to drug interaction. This suggests that the selectivity of 5-FU and NSAIDs combination varies depending on the cancer cell types.
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