Inhibitory Activities of Vegetable Juices on Digestive Enzymes for Starch and Sugar Digestions

Main Article Content

Matusorn Wongon
Kanchana Muengfa
Kanittaporn Trisat
Nanteetip Limpeanchob


Hyperglycemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes. Besides drug therapy, lifestyle modification particularly healthy diet is important. Vegetable-based diet consumption is highly recommended; thus, the present study aimed to investigate and identify type of vegetables possessing potential for management of blood glucose levels. Twenty vegetables were selected to prepare freeze-dried vegetable juices. gif.latex?\large&space;\alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was tested using natural substrates (maltose and sucrose) in comparison with synthetic glucose derivative (pNPG). gif.latex?\large&space;\alpha-Amylase was also tested. The enzyme inhibitory activities of heated-vegetable samples were also monitored to investigate the influence of cooking condition. The result indicated that among all tested samples holy basil, sweet basil, and okra possessed high potential as gif.latex?\large&space;\alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in which 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of all three samples were lower than that of acarbose regardless of type of substrates.  Juices from holy basil, sweet basil, and okra exhibited non-competitive gif.latex?\large&space;\alpha-glucosidase inhibition whereas acarbose showed competitive inhibition.  Boiling differently affected gif.latex?\large&space;\alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of each vegetable but it seems not to have much effect on holy basil, sweet basil, and okra activity. In conclusion, consumption of these vegetables may reduce carbohydrate digestion, delay glucose absorption, and reduce postprandial blood glucose that will be benefit not only for diabetic patients but also for people with high risks for developing diabetes, as well as general healthy people.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles



Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SRK, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, et al. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet. 2010;375(9733):2215-2222.

World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization; 2016.

The American Diabetes Association. Glycemic targets: Standards of medical care in diabetes 2022. Diabetes Care 2022. 2022;45(1):S83–S96.

Williamson G. Possible effects of dietary polyphenols on sugar absorption and digestion. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(1): 48-57.

Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee: advisory report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service; 2015.

Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, Springmann M, Lang T, Vermeulen S, et al. Food in the anthropocene: the EAT–lancet commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet. 2019;393(10170):447-492.

Ríos JL, Francini F, Schinella GR. Natural Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Planta Med. 2015;81(12/13):975-994.

Salehi B, Ata A, V Anil Kumar N, Sharopov F, Ramírez-Alarcón K, Ruiz-Ortega A, et al. Antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants and their active components. Biomolecules. 2019;9(10):551.

Lamb MJ, Griffin SJ, Sharp SJ, Cooper AJ. Fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk factors in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017; 71(1):115-521.

Liang J, Zhang Y, Xue A, Sun J, Song X, Xue B, et al. Association between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and a reduction in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Qingdao, China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26(2):255-261.

Medina-Remón A, Kirwan R, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Estruch R. Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018;58(2):262-296.

Zhang Z, Luo A, Zhong K, Huang Y, Gao Y, Zhang J, et al. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity by the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. J Funct Foods. 2013;5(3): 1253-1259.

Yoshino M. A graphical method for determining inhibition parameters for partial and complete inhibitors. Biochem J. 1987;248(3):815-820.

Yoshino M, Murakami K. A graphical method for determining inhibition constants. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24(6): 1288-1290.

Dubey P, Mishra S. A review on: Diabetes and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). J Med Plants Stud. 2017;5(3):23-26.

Arapitsas P. Identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds from okra seeds and skins. Food Chem. 2008;110(4): 1041-1045.

Palanuvej C, Hokputsa S, Tunsaringkarn T, Ruangrungsi N. In vitro glucose entrapment and alpha-glucosidase inhibition of mucilaginous substances from selected Thai medicinal plants. Sci Pharm. 2009; 77(4):837-850.

Ibrahim M, Yaradua I, Matazu KI, Nasir A, Matazu NU, Zainab AS, et al. Antidiabetic activity of Abelmoschus esculentus (Ex-Maradi Okra) fruit in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Nig J Biochem Mol Bio. 2017;32(1):44-52.

Abbas AY, Muhammad I, AbdulRahman MB, Bilbis LS, Saidu Y, Onu A. Possible antidiabetic mechanism of action of ex-maradi okra fruit variety (Abelmoscus esculentus) on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Nig J Basic Appl Sci. 2017;25(2):101-113.

Tomoda M, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Kanari M, Yamada H, Hikino H. Anticomplementary and hypoglycemic activity of okra and hibiscus mucilages. Carbohydr Res. 1989;190(2):323-328.

Sabitha V, Panneerselvam K, Ramachandran S. In vitro α–glucosidase and α–amylase enzyme inhibitory effects in aqueous extracts of Abelmoscus esculentus (L.) Moench. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(1, Supplement):S162-S164.

Wongsa P, Chaiwarit J, Zamaludien A. In vitro screening of phenolic compounds, potential inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of culinary herbs in Thailand. Food Chem. 2012;131(3):964-971.

Mahoney SE, Loprinzi PD. Influence of flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable intake on diabetic retinopathy and diabetes-related biomarkers. J Diabetes Complications. 2014;28(6):767-771.

Malapermal V, Botha I, Krishna SBN, Mbatha JN. Enhancing antidiabetic and antimicrobial performance of Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum sanctum (L.) using silver nanoparticles. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017;24(6):1294-1305.

El-Beshbishy H, Bahashwan S. Hypoglycemic effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) aqueous extract is mediated through inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities: an in vitro study. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012;28(1): 42-50.

Ezeani C, Ezenyi I, Okoye T, Okoli C. Ocimum basilicum extract exhibits antidiabetic effects via inhibition of hepatic glucose mobilization and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2017;6(1):22-28.

Chaudhary S, Semwal A, Kumar H, Verma HC, Kumar A. In-vivo study for anti-hyperglycemic potential of aqueous extract of Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum Linn) and its influence on biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes and haematological indices. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:2008-2013.

Widjaja SS, Rusdiana, Savira M. Glucose lowering effect of basil leaves in diabetic rats. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019; 7(9):1415–1417.

Suanarunsawat T, Anantasomboon G, Piewbang C. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats. Exp Ther Med. 2016;11(3):832-840.

Palermo M, Pellegrini N, Fogliano V. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables. J Sci Food Agric. 2014;94(6):1057-1070.

Puupponen‐Pimiä R, Häkkinen ST, Aarni M, Suortti T, Lampi AM, Eurola M, et al. Blanching and long‐term freezing affect various bioactive compounds of vegetables in different ways. J Sci Food Agric. 2003; 83(14):1389-1402.