Main Article Content
Excessive fat accumulation leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and abnormal lipid signaling pathways that potentially result in metabolic dysregulation. Beta carotene is one of the main provitamin A carotenoids in the diet which has potentially beneficial effects on health. Epidemiological studies have linked high circulating concentrations of beta carotene and metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. In this pilot randomized controlled trial study, we aimed to determine the effect of carrot jelly consumption on clinical and biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome in men with obesity. A group of men with obesity underwent dietary supplementation with carrot jelly rich in beta carotene (N=10) or placebo (N=10) daily for 3 months. The treatment group showed significantly high levels of plasma beta-carotene at 1 month (263.6 ±1.90 ng/mL) and 3 month (284.6 ±1.65 ng/mL) after supplementation compared to the baseline (72.4 ±2.34 ng/mL, with p<0.05). After 3 months, the treatment group also showed lower blood pressure; lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde concentrations; and higher plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (all p<0.05) compared to baseline. In the follow-up periods, these biochemical markers among the placebo group remained unchanged. Dietary carotenoid supplementation may have beneficial effects in men with obesity and other related metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia and hypertension.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Upon acceptance of an article, the Pharmacological and Therapeutic Society of Thailand will have exclusive right to publish and distribute the article in all forms and media and grant rights to others. Authors have rights to use and share their own published articles.
Noncommunicable diseases: risk factors. In: Global Health Observatory [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021 [cited 2021 Sep 12]. Available from: https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/ noncommunicable-diseases-risk-factors
Aekplakorn W, Hogan MC, Chongsuvivatwong V, Tatsanavivat P, Chariyalertsak S, Boonthum A, et al. Trends in Obesity and Associations with Education and Urban or Rural Residence in Thailand. Obesity. 2007;15(12):3113–121.
Sakboonyarat B, Pornpongsawad C, Sangkool T, Phanmanas C, Kesonphaet N, Tangthongtawi N, et al. Trends, prevalence and associated factors of obesity among adults in a rural community in Thailand: Serial cross-sectional surveys, 2012 and 2018. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):850.
Vekic J, Zeljkovic A, Stefanovic A, Jelic-Ivanovic Z, Spasojevic-Kalimanovska V. Obesity and dyslipidemia. Metabolism. 2019;92:71-81.
Jia XJ, Liu LX, Tian YM, Wang R, Lu Q. The correlation between oxidative stress level and intra-abdominal fat in obese males. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(7):e14469.
Nishitani N, Sakakibara H. Association between body mass index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in male Japanese. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2013;7(4):e297-300.
Rao AV, Rao LG. Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacol Res. 2007;55(3):207-216.
Mares J. Lutein and zeaxanthin isomers in eye health and disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016;36:571-602.
Potter AS, Foroudi S, Stamatikos A, Patil BS, Deyhim F. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults. Nutr J. 2011;10:96.
Kawashima A, Madarame T, Koike H, Komatsu Y, Wise JA. Four week supplementation with mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrates increased protective serum antioxidants and folate and decreased plasma homocysteine in Japanese subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(3):411-421.
Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, Cullen MR, Glass A, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(18):1150-1155.
Immundiagnostik AG. Malondialdehyde HPLC Kit [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2019 Sep 27]. Available from: http://immundiagnostik.com/fileadmin/pdf/Malondialdehyd _KC1900.pdf
CHROMSYSTEM. Vitamins A and E in Serum/Plasma – HPLC [Internet]. [cited 2019 Oct16]. Available from: https://chromsystems.com/en/vitamins-a-and-e-in-serum-plasma-hplc-34000.html
CHROMSYSTEM. β-Carotene in Serum/Plasma - HPLC [Internet]. [cited 2019 Oct 16]. Available from: https://chromsystems.com/en/b-carotene-in-serum-plasma-hplc-32000.html
Aebischer C, Schierle J, Schuep W. Simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, carotene, lycopene, and xanthophylls in plasma by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Methods in Enzymology: Oxidants and Antioxidants; L. Packer, Ed.; Academic Press: New York,1999; pp 348-362.
Prior RL, Hoang H, Gu L, Wu X, Bacchiocca M, Howard L, Hampsch-Woodill M, Huang D, Ou B, Jacob R. Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma and other biological and food samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(11):3273-3279.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 21th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International: Maryland, USA; 2019.
Speek AJ, Temalilwa CR, Schrijver J. Determination of β-carotene content and vitamin A activity of vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Food Chemistry. 1986;19(1):65-74.
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Thailand. INMUCAL–Nutrients Program. Bangkok: Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University; 2009.
Thürmann PA, Steffen J, Zwernemann C, Aebischer CP, Cohn W, Wendt G, et al. Plasma concentration response to drinks containing beta-carotene as carrot juice or formulated as a water dispersible powder. Eur J Nutr. 2002;41(5):228-235.
Watzl B, Bub A, Briviba K, Rechkemmer G. Supplementation of a low-carotenoid diet with tomato or carrot juice modulates immune functions in healthy men. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):255-261.
Hall JE, do Carmo JM, da Silva AA, Wang Z, Hall ME.Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms. Circ Res. 2015;116(6):991-1006.
Chen J, He J, Hamm L, Batuman V, Whelton PK. Serum antioxidant vitamins and blood pressure in the United States population. Hypertension. 2002;40(6):810-816.
Zhu X, Shi M, Pang H, Cheang I, Zhu Q, Guo Q, et al. Inverse association of serum carotenoid levels with prevalence of hypertension in the general adult population. Front Nutr. 2022;9:971879.
Zhong JC, Huang DY, Yang YM, Li YF, Liu GF, Song XH, et al. Upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by all-trans retinoic acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2004;44(6):907-912.
Preston IR, Tang G, Tilan JU, Hill NS, Suzuki YJ. Retinoids and pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 2005;111(6):782-790.
McArdle MA, Finucane OM, Connaughton RM, McMorrow AM, Roche HM. Mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance: insights into the emerging role of nutritional strategies. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013;4:52.
Matsumoto M, Waki N, Suganuma H, Takahashi I, Kurauchi S, Sawada K, et al. Association between biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases and the blood concentration of carotenoids among the general population without apparent illness. Nutrients. 2020;12(8):2310.
Asemi Z, Alizadeh SA, Ahmad K, Goli M, Esmaillzadeh A. Effects of beta-carotene fortified synbiotic food on metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2016 ;35(4):819-825.
Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients. 2013;5(4):1218-1240.
Bacchetti T, Tullii D, Masciangelo S, Brugè F, Silvestri S, Orlando P, et al. Correlation between plasma levels of carotenoid and oxidized low-density lipoproteins: A short human intervention study. Integr. Food Nutr. Metab. 2016;3:283-288.
Sluijs I, Beulens JW, Grobbee DE, van der Schouw YT. Dietary carotenoid intake is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men. J Nutr. 2009;139(5):987-992.
Melnikov N, Kamari Y, Kandel-Kfir M, Barshack I, Ben-Amotz A, Harats D, et al. β-carotene from the Alga Dunaliella bardawil decreases gene expression of adipose tissue macrophage recruitment markers and plasma lipid concentrations in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mar Drugs. 2022;20(7):433.
Sougawa Y, Miyai N, Morioka I, Utsumi M, Takeda S, Miyashita K, et al. The combination of obesity and high salt intake are associated with blood pressure elevation among healthy Japanese adolescents. J Hum Hypertens. 2020;34(2):117-124.
Mente A, O'Donnell MJ, Rangarajan S, McQueen MJ, Poirier P, Wielgosz A, et al. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(7):601-611.
Grillo A, Salvi L, Coruzzi P, Salvi P, Parati G. Sodium intake and hypertension. Nutrients. 2019;11(9):1970.
Vivekananthan DP, Penn MS, Sapp SK, Hsu A, Topol EJ. Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Lancet. 2003;361:2017e23.
Yang J, Zhang Y, Na X, Zhao A. β-carotene supplementation and risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients. 2022;14(6):1284.