Physical and Chemical Properties of Bottled Drinking Water in the Mandalay Region, Myanmar: A Preliminary Study

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Zaw Winn Kyaw


A total of fifty-five samples of bottled drinking water (BDW) were collected from different retail shops in the Mandalay Region, Myanmar, to determine the safety aspects of physical and chemical properties of bottled drinking water in Mandalay. Collected samples were analyzed for pH, turbidity, total alkalinity (as CaCO3), bicarbonate alkalinity (HCO3-), total hardness (as CaCO3), sulfate (SO42-), chloride (Cl-), sodium chloride (NaCl), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As). The pH was determined by a Hanna instruments HI 98129 pH meter which was calibrated at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0. Turbidity was measured by spectrophotometry at the wavelength of 455 nm. Total hardness as CaCO3 concentration was determined by EDTA titrimetric method APHA 2340 C. Total alkalinity, sulfate, chloride (Cl- and NaCl) concentrations were determined by APHA 2320 B, 4500-SO42- C and 4500-Cl- B, respectively. Lead concentration in BDW was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and arsenic (As) was determined by a Lovibond Arsenic Test Kit (Part Number 400700). The pH values of BDW samples were found to be within WHO and National (Myanmar) Drinking Water Standards expect for three samples (S-40, S-51 and S-55) which were found in slightly acidic condition. Total hardness values ranged from 0.21 mg/L to 20.2 mg/L as CaCO3. Sulfate concentrations ranged from 3.3 mg/L to 9.5 mg/L as SO42-. Chloride and sodium chloride concentrations ranged from 1.44 mg/L to 14.58 mg/L as Cl- and 5.8 mg/L to 24.1 mg/L as NaCl, respectively. Very low concentrations of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) were found in all collected BDW samples. In this study, the overall results showed that all collected bottled drinking water samples in Mandalay were found within WHO and Myanmar National Drinking Water Standards and to be physical and chemically safe for drinking.


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