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Ginseng and ginseng extract have been widely used in the areas of East Asia and North America as an adaptogen. The important active ingredients found in ginseng are triterpene saponins called ginsenosides. Ginseng extracts as well as ginsenosides have been reported to possess activities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, as well as immune stimulation. Herein the present review gathers the scientific evidence obtained form in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experiments, aiming to provide defined information regarding the activities of active compounds of ginseng in protecting neurons, enhancing learning and memory, improving Parkinson’s disease as well as other neurodegenerative disorders. Together with the provided clinical and toxicological information, this review may benefit the further development of ginseng, its extracts, and active ingredients to be used for the prevention and treatment of neurological disorders.
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