Effect of Aril Extract of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng on Glucose and Fat Metabolism in High Fat and High Fructose Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

Main Article Content

Pavina Apiboon
Laddawan Senggunprai
Parichat Prajaney
Bunkerd Kongyingyoes
Patchareewan Pannangpetch


Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem of Thais and also worldwide population, as it cannot be radically cured. Insulin resistance is an essential cause of Type 2 diabetes. Long term high fat and high fructose diet (HFFD) consumption can cause an insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aril extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (MCE) on glucose and fat metabolism in HFFD-induced insulin resistant rats. Male Wistar rats were used. The rats in the normal group were fed normal chow, while those in the insulin resistant group were fed HFFD (40% lard and 20% fructose) throughout the experimental period. At week 4 of normal chow or HFFD feeding, treatments were applied for further eight weeks, as follows: Group I: normal chow with distilled water (DW); Group II: normal chow with MCE 500 mg/kg/day; Group III: HFFD with DW; Group IV-V: HFFD with MCE 250 and 500 mg/kg/day; Group VI: HFFD with pioglitazone 10 mg/kg/day. Following this, fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), serum insulin level, Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profiles and expression of PPAR-a mRNA in liver were determined. The results showed that insulin resistant rats had high blood glucose and lipid levels, impaired OGTT, and high HOMA-IR value, which are the characteristics of Type 2 DM. The administration of MCE (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased FBG, reduced triglyceride and improved OGTT. However, MCE only showed a prominent tendency, but not significantly, to lower HOMA-IR values in HFFD feeding rats. Interestingly, MCE significantly increased the expression of liver PPAR-a mRNA of insulin resistant rats which may contribute to the action of MCE on glucose and fat metabolism in these rats. In conclusion, MCE possesses potential to be developed as supplementary agent in the treatment of insulin resistance and Type 2 DM patients. 

Article Details

Research Articles
Author Biography

Pavina Apiboon, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University.

นักศึกษาปริญญาโท ภาคเภสัชวิทยา คณะแพทยศาสตร  มหาวิทยาลัยขอนแก่น


Guariguata L, Whiting DR, Hambleton I, Beagley J, Linnenkamp U, Shaw JE. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(2):137-49.

Lozano I, Van der Werf R, Bietiger W, Seyfritz E, Peronet C, Pinget M, et al. High-fructose and high-fat diet-induced disorders in rats: impact on diabetes risk, hepatic and vascular complications. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016;13:15.

Huang BW, Chiang MT, Yao HT, Chiang W. The effect of high-fat and high-fructose diets on glucose tolerance and plasma lipid and leptin levels in rats. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004;6(2):120-6.

Tyagi S, Gupta P, Saini AS, Kaushal C, Sharma S. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011;2(4):236-40.

Jay MA, Ren J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007;3(1):33-9.

Vajpeyi. AP, Singh PK, Kumar M, Gupta AK, Manish K, Sharma, et al. Mode of action of momordica cochinchinensis on serum glucose and insuline activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian J Microbiol Biotechnol Environ Sci. 2007;9:779-82.

Kubola J, Siriamornpun S. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng). Food chemistry. 2011;127(3):1138-45.

Gouranton E, Thabuis C, Riollet C, Malezet-Desmoulins C, El Yazidi C, Amiot MJ, et al. Lycopene inhibits proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in adipose tissue. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22(7):642-8.

Hsu CY, Shih HY, Chia YC, Lee CH, Ashida H, Lai YK, et al. Rutin potentiates insulin receptor kinase to enhance insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 translocation. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58(6):1168-76.

Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985; 28(7):412-9.

Jiao K, Liu H, Chen J, Tian D, Hou J, Kaye AD. Roles of plasma interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and FFA and TG in the development of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet. Cytokine. 2008;42(2):161-9.

Meshkani R, Adeli K. Hepatic insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Clin Biochem. 2009;42(13-14):1331-46.

Tappy L, Le KA, Tran C, Paquot N. Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions. Nutrition. 2010;26(11-12):1044-9.

Bocarsly ME, Powell ES, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;97(1):101-6.

Haluzik MM, Haluzik M. PPAR-alpha and insulin sensitivity. Physiol Res. 2006;55(2):115-22.

Ferre P. The biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: relationship with lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 2004;53 Suppl 1:S43-50.