Predicting the Duration of Chloroquine, Mefloquine, Halfantrine and Artesunate for Blood Schizonticidal Effect using Mathematical Models of Malaria with Immune Response

Main Article Content

Nataphan Kitisin
Panit Suavansri

Abstract

This paper focuses on the mathematical model of the death rate of malaria parasite due to chloroquine, mefloquine, halfantrine and artesunate together with the immune response in order to determine the treatment period. The basic knowledge of probabilities, pharmacology, microbiology, medicines, physics and chemistry are used to support this model and hypotheses. One of the hypotheses is the convective theory used for calculating and converting the flow rate of drug molecules with respect to malaria parasite into the death rate of malaria parasite. Other instruments are five probability factors, which the authors use to determine the efficiency of the drugs parasites. Applied this model of death rate with normal malaria model and take into account of the immune response, the treatment durations result in the ranges between 1 to 15 days and are compatible with the real clinical data.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

Li Y, Ruan S, Xiao D. The Within-Host dynamics of malaria infection with immune response. Math Biosci Eng. 2011 Oct 1;8(4):999-18.

World health organization[Internet]. Malaria:Information for travellers. [updated 2017 Jan 27; cited 2017 Aug 3]. Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/travellers/en/.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [Internet]. CDC - Malaria - About Malaria - Biology. [updated 2016 Mar 16; cited 2017 Aug 3]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/.

Ockenhouse CF, Ho M, Tandon NN, Van Seventer GA, Shaw S, White NJ, et al. Molecular basis of sequestration in severe and uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: differential adhesion of infected erythrocytes to CD36 and ICAM-1, J Infect Dis. 1991 Jul;164(1):163-9.

Franke-Fayard B, Fonager J, Braks A, Khan SM, Janse CJ, Sequestration and tissue accumulation of human malaria parasites: can we learn anything from rodent models of malaria?, PLoSPathog. 2010 Sep 30;6(9):1.

ter Kuile F, White NJ, Holloway P, Pasvol G, Krishna S,Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro studies of the pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used for the treatment of severe malaria. Exp Parasitol. 1993 Feb;76(1):85-95.

Wilairatana P, Looareesuwan S, Artesunate : A Potent Antimalarial Drug for Falciparum Malaria. j infect dis antimicrob agents.1996 Sep;3(13):119-121.

Pabst W, Gregorová E[Internet]ICT Prague: Characterization of particles and particle systems [cited 2017Aug 3]. Available from: http://old.vscht.cz/sil/keramika/Characterization_of_particles/CPPS_English version_.pdf

Brinkman HC, A calculation of the viscous force exerted by a flowing fluid on a dense swarm of particles. Appl. Sci. Res.. 1949;1:27-34.

Agasanapura BN, Baltus RE, Chellam S, Effect of Convective Hindrance On Microfiltration of Rod Shaped Particles, AIChE Journal, Proceedings of Conference for Annual Meeting, 2011; 5-29.

Mazaheri A, A review of the literature, Probabilistic Modeling of Ship Grounding, Helsinki University of Technology. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Applied Mechanics, 2009:26-34.

Preetam G. Stochastic Models for In-silico Event-based Biological Network Simulation, [dissertation]. University of Texas at Arlington, 2007:80-86.

Ye T, Phan-Thien N, Khoo BC and Lim CT, Stretching and relaxation of malaria-infected red blood cells, Biophys J. 2013 Sep 3;105(5):1103-9.

Berg HC and Purcell EM, Physics of chemoreception, Biophysical Journal. 1977 Nov; 20(2):193-219.

Taroni C, Jones S and Thornton JM, Analysis and prediction of carbohydrate binding sites, Protein Eng. 2000;13(2):89-98.

Bichara D, Cozic N, Iggidr A, On the estimation of sequestered infected erythrocytes in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients, Math Biosci Eng. 2014;11(4):741-59.

Tanna JA, Patel PN, Kalele SD, Relation between organ weights and body weight in adult population of Bhavnagar Region-a post-mortem study, J Indian Acad Forensic Med. 2011 Jan-Mar;33(1):57-9.

Karbwang J, Bunnag D, Harinasuta T, Chittamas S, Berth J and Druilhe P, Pharmacokinetics of quinine, quinidine and Cinchonine when given as combination, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1992 Dec;23(4):773-6.

White NJ, Antimalarial pharmacokinetics and treatment regimens, Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Jul;34(1):1-10.

Veenendaal JR, Parkinson AD, Kere N, Rieckmann KH, Edstein MD, Pharmacokinetics of halofantrine and n-desbutylhalofantrine in patients with falciparum malaria following a multiple dose regimen of halofantrine, Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;41(2):161-4.

Ashton M, Hai TN, Sy ND, Huong DX, Van Huong N, Niĕu NT, Cőng LD., Artemisinin pharmacokinetics is time-dependent during repeated oral administration in healthy male adults, Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jan;26(1):25-7.

Morris CA, Duparc S, Borghini-Fuhrer I, Jung D, Shin CS, Fleckenstein L, Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration, Malar J. 2011 Sep 13;10:263,1-17.

Dilsizian V, Pohost GM, Cardiac CT, PET and MR, Multislice Cardiac Tomography: Myocardial Function, Perfusion, and Viability, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010:260.

Khurana I, Textbook Of Medical Physiology; Dynamics of Circulation: Pressure and Flow of Blood and Lymph, Elsevier, 2006: 327.

Radivoj V. Krstic, Human Microscopic Anatomy: An Atlas for Students of Medicine and Biology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, printed in Germany, 1997:50-4.

Vosse FN van de, D MEH van, Cardiovascular Fluid Mechanics - lecture notes - Materials Technology Chapter 8 "Flow patterns in the micro-circulation", Eindhoven University of Technology, faculty of Mechanical Engineering (MaTe), Faculty of Applied Physics (NT) [Internet]. 1998 [cited 2016 Nov 4];102(6):[about 130 p.]. Available from: http://www.mate.tue.nl/people/vosse/docs/cardio.pdf

Pollak AN, Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured, Chapter 4 "The Human Body", 10th ed. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, Printed in the United States of America, 2005:108-109.

Higgins JM, Eddington DT, Bhatia SN, Mahadevan L, Statistical Dynamics of Flowing Red Blood Cells by Morphological Image Processing, PLoS Comput Biol. 2009 Feb;5(2):1-10.

Ali H, Ahsan T, Mahmood T, Bakht SF, Farooq MU, Ahmed N, Parasite density and the spectrum of clinical illness in falciparum malaria, J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008 Jun;18(6):362-8.

White NJ, The parasite clearance curve, Malaria J. 2011;10:278.1-8.

Staver JR, Lumpe AT, A content analysis of the presentation of the mole concept in chemistry textbooks, Journal of Research in Science Teaching (JRST). 1993 April;30(4):321-37.

Schlesinger PH, Herwaldt BL, Antimalarial agents: mechanism of chloroquine resistance, Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Jun; 32(6): 799-801.

de Villiers KA, Egan TJ, Recent advances in the discovery of haem-targeting drugs for malaria and schistosomiasis. Molecules, 2009;14(8): 2868-87

Sinha S, Medhi B, Sehgal R, Challenges of drug-resistant malaria. Parasite. 2014;21(61):1-15.