Antifungal activity of Pelargonium graveolens essential oils from different geographical locations against Candida albicans
Vulvovaginal candidiasis, an acute inflammatory disease, is caused by Candida sp. especially C. albicans. The antifungal activity was studied using micro-broth dilution assay of 16 samples of P. graveolens essential oils from different geographical locations (Germany, n = 5; India, n = 3; Iran, n = 8) and different combinations of geraniol and citronellol (10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; 5:50; 60:40; 7:30; 80:20; 90:10; 95:5, respectively) against 72 clinical isolates of C. albicans from vaginal discharges. All nine combinations of geraniol and citronellol tested had the same anti-candidal effects against C. albicans. P. graveolens essential oil E20 (geraniol, 95%), and E9 (citronellol, 48%; geraniol, 5.1%; citronellol fromate, 16.2%) had minimal inhibitory concentration values (means ± Standard Deviation) of 0.497 ± 0.085 and 1.149 ± 0.083 μL/mL, respectively. Although geraniol and citronellol played an important role in the anti-candidal activity of P. graveolens essential oils, other minor components may also have roles in its anti-candidal activity.