Microbial Production of Ascorbic Acid from Brewery Spent Grain (BSG) by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii
Keywords:Ascorbic acid, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Brewery Spent Grain, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamari
This study evaluated the use of Brewery Spent Grain (BSG) as a novel substrate for the production of ascorbic acid using Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii. Spores of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii were cultured in a liquid fermentation medium containing BSG (0.6% w/v) for ascorbic acid production. The process was studied at pH 4–8, temperature range 30–45°C, agitation speed range
60–160 rpm for 168 h. Stability studies and the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (0.5–4.0 g/ml) on ascorbic acid production were studied. Ascorbic acid produced was quantified by titration techniques and with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The statistical analysis of the effects of temperature and agitation speed on ascorbic acid production showed no significant difference at p<0.05. However, there was significant difference in the effect of pH on ascorbic acid production at p<0.05. Optimum ascorbic acid yields of 7.25 g/L and 6.25 g/L were produced by A. tamarii and A. flavus respectively at pH 5.0, temperature (40°C) and agitation speed of 100 rpm at 96 h of fermentation. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) showed that 6.248 g/L and 7.246 g/L of ascorbic acid were produced by A. flavus and A. tamarii, respectively. Ascorbic acid production by A. flavus and A. tamarii was completely inhibited at 4 g/ml of EDTA. This study shows the potential of BSG as a novel substrate for ascorbic acid production.
Ajibola, V.O., Babatunde, O.A. and Suleiman, S. 2009. The effect of storage method on the vitamin C content in some tropical fruit juices. Trends in Applied Science Research. 4:79–84.
Association of Vitamin Chemists. 1996. Methods of vitamin assay Interscience. New York. 306–312.
Bai, D., Li, S., Liu, Z.L. and Cui, Z. 2008. Enhanced L-(+)-Lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 144:79–85.
Branduardi, P., Sauer, M., Mattanovich, D. and Porro, D. 2006. Ascorbic acid production from D-glucose in yeast. United States Patent Application 20060234360.
Chaurasia, S., Chaurasia, A.K., Chaurasia, S. and Chaurasia, S., 2014. Effect of different factors on organic acid production by Sclerotium rolfsii. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience. 2:146–153.
El.Gindy, A., Emara, S., Mesbah, M.K. and Hadad, G.M. 2005. Spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic determination of fenofibrate and vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products. Farmaco. 60:425–438.
Fillaudeau, L., Blanpain-Avet, P. and Daufin, G. 2006. Water, waste water and waste management in brewing industries. Journal of Cleaner Production. 14:463–471.
Igbokwe, G.E., Ngobidi, K.C. and Iwuchukwu, N.P. 2013. Production of alpha-amylase from mixed Actinomyces spp cultured at room temperature using Nelson’s colorimetric method. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences. 6:175–180.
Jimenez, R.P., Pena, C., Ramirez, O.T. and Galindo, E. 2005. Specific growth rate determines the molecular mass of the alginate produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Biochemical Enginerring Journal. 25:187–193.
Kareem, S. O. and Rahman, R.A. 2013. Utilization of banana peels for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 4:384–387.
Leandro, M., Marra, S. M., Claudio, R.F.S., Soares, J. M., Fabio, L. and Fatima, M.S. 2015. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization. Brazilian Journal Microbiology. 46:2.
Lupulescu, A. 1993. The role of vitamins A, B, Carotene, E and C in cancer cell biology. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 63:3–14.
Mussatto, S.I. and Roberto, I.C. 2006. Chemical characterization and liberation of pentose sugars from brewer’s spent grain. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 81: 268–274.
Mussatto, S.I. and Roberto, I.C. 2008. Establishment of the optimum initial xylose concentration and nutritional supplementation of brewer’s spent grain hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii. Process Biochemistry. 43:540–546.
Mussatto, S.I. 2009. Biotechnological potential of brewing Industry by-products. In S.P. Nigam, A. Pandey (Eds.). Biotechnology for agro-Industrial residues utilization. New York,Springer. 313–326.
Oliveira, A.N., Oliveira, L.A. and Andrade, J.S. 2010. Partial characterization of amylases of two indigenous central Amazonian Rhizobia strains. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 53:35–45.
Pena, C., Millan, M. and Galindo, E. 2008. Production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii in a stirred fermentor simulating the evolution of power input observed in shake flasks. Process Biochem. 43:775–778.
Porro, D. and Sauer, M. 2003. Ascorbic acid production from yeast. United States patent No 6630330.
Porro, D. and Sauer, M. 2007. Ascorbic acid production from yeasts. European Patent Application EP1820863.
Prakash, O., Jaiswal, N. and Pandey, R.K. 2011. Effect of metal ions, EDTA and sulfhydryl reagents on soybean amylase activity. Asian Journal of Biochemistry. 6:282–290.
Robertson, J.A.I., Anson, K.J.A., Treimo, J., Faulds, C.B., Brocklehurst, T.F., Eijsink, V.G.H. and Waldron, K.W. 2010. Profiling brewer spent grain for composition and microbial ecology at the site of production. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 43:890–896.
Shindia, A. A., El-Sherbeny, G. A., El-Esawy, A. E. and Sheriff, Y. M. 2006. Production of gluconic Acid by some local fungi. Mycobiology. 34:22–29.
Shyam, P.G., Girisham, S. and Reddy, S.M. 2009. Studies on microbial transformation of meloxicam by fungi. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 19:922–931.
Sindhu, R., Suprabha, G. N. and Shashidhar, S. 2009. Optimization of process parameters for the production of α- amylase from Penicillium janthinellum (NCIM 4960) under solid state fermentation. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 3:498–503
Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A. and Ibanoglu, S. 2008. The recycling of brewers processing by-product into ready-to-eat snacks using extrusion technology. Journal of Cereal Science. 47:469–479.
Szponar, B., Pawlik, K.J., Gamian, A. and Dey, E.S. 2003. Protein fraction of barley spent grain as a new simple medium for growth and sporulation of soil actinobacteria. Biotechnology Letters. 25:1717–1721.
Tang, D., Yin, G., He, Y., Hu, S., Li, B., Li, L., Liang, H. and Borthakur, D. 2009. Recovery of protein from brewer’s spent grain by ultrafiltration. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 48:1–5.
Techapun, C., Poosaran, N., Watanabe, M. and Sasaki, K. 2003. Optimization of aeration and agitation rates to improve cellulose-free xylanase production by thermotolerant Streptomyces Spp. Ab106 and repeated fed batch cultivation using agricultural waste. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 95:298–301.
Terrasan, C.R.F., Temer, B., Duarte, M.C.T. and Carmona, E.C. 2010. Production of xylanolytic enzymes by Penicillium janczewskii. Bioresource Technology. 101:4139–4143.
Xiros, C., Moukouli, M., Topakas, E. and Christakopoulos, P. 2009. Factors affecting ferulic acid release from Brewer’s spent grain by Fusarium oxysporum enzymatic system. Bioresource Technology. 100:5917–5921.
Walingo, K.M. 2005. Role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on human health. African Journal of Food Agriculture and Nutritional Development. 5:1.
Zvidzai, C., Muzhinji, N., Chidzvondo, F., Mundembe, R. and SitholeNiang, I. 2007. Potential commercialization of a microbial medium formulated from industrial food waste. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 1:79–87.