Chemical profiles of three varieties of germinated rice based on LC-MS and their antioxidant activity
Keywords:germinated rice extract, chemical profiling, antioxidant activity, LC−ESI−Q−TOF−MS, γ-aminobutyric acid
In this study, chemical profiles in different germinated rice extracts (GREs) using different solvent extraction ratio were investigated. Three varieties of germinated rice (GR), including germinated white rice (GWR), germinated black rice (GBR) and germinated red rice (GRR) were extracted using 70 and 100% ethanol (v/v). Both extracts were characterized for their chemical profiles using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization. This enzyme is thus the target of the widely available cholesterol-lowering drugs known collectively as the statins (Chen et al., 2011). This type of medication is usually an option for expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, which is considered, by those who accept the standard lipid hypothesis, an important determinant of atherosclerosis. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) treatment. Lovastatin has been well known as a strong HMG-CoA reductase quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). The content of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activities were also determined. The chemical profiles of GREs are composed of organic acids, amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds.
Ajila, C.M., Jaganmohan Rao, L. and Prasada Rao, U.J.S. 2010. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48: 3406-3411.
Arabshahi-D, S., Vishalakshi Devi, D. and Urooj, A. 2007. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability. Food Chemistry. 100(3): 1100-1105.
Benzie, I.F. and Strain, J.J. 1999. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods in Enzymology. 299: 15-27.
Ding, J., Ulanov, A.V., Dong, M., Yang, T., Nemzer, B.V., Xiong, S., Zhao, S. and Feng, H. 2018. Enhancement of gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other health-related metabolites in germinated red rice (Oryza sativa L.) by ultrasonication. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 40: 791-797.
Do, Q.D., Angkawijaya, A.E., Tran-Nguyen, P.L., Huynh, L.H., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ismadji, S., and Ju, Y.H. (2014). Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. Journal of food and drug analysis. 22(3): 296-302.
Duangjai, A., Suphrom, N., Wungrath, J., Ontawong, A., Nuengchamnong, N. and Yosboonruang, A. 2016. Comparison of antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and chemical profiles of three coffee (Coffea arabica L.) pulp aqueous extracts. Integrative Medicine Research. 5(4): 324-331.
Imeh, U. and Khokhar, S. 2002. Distribution of conjugated and free phenols in fruits: antioxidant activity and cultivar variations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50(22): 6301-6306.
Ismail, A., Marjan, Z.M. and Foong, C.W. 2004. Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chemistry. 87(4): 581-586.
Jaiswal, R., Patras, M.A., Eravuchira, P.J. and Kuhnert, N. 2010. Profile and characterization of the chlorogenic acids in green Robusta coffee beans by LC-MSn: identification of seven new classes of compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Jannoey, P., Niamsup, H., Lumyong, S., Tajima, S., Nomura, M., and Chairote, G. (2010). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulations in rice during germination. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 37(1): 124-133.
Khuhawar, M.Y. and Rajper, A.D. 2003. Liquid chromatographic determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid in cerebrospinal fluid using 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde as derivatizing reagent. Journal of Chromatography B. 788(2): 413-418.
Kim, H.Y., Hwang, I.G., Kim, T.M., Woo, K.S., Park, D.S., Kim, J.H., Kim, D.J., Lee, J., Lee, Y.R. and Jeong, H.S. 2012. Chemical and functional components in different parts of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) before and after germination. Food Chemistry. 134(1): 288-293.
Kim, J.K., Park, S.Y., Lim, S.H., Yeo, Y., Cho, H.S. and Ha, S.H. 2013. Comparative metabolic profiling of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars reveals primary metabolites are correlated with secondary metabolites. Journal of Cereal Science. 57(1): 14-20.
Lasse K. Bak, Schousboe, A. and Waagepetersen Helle, S. 2006. The glutamate/GABA‐glutamine cycle: aspects of transport, neurotransmitter homeostasis and ammonia transfer. Journal of Neurochemistry. 98(3): 641-653.
Liyana-Pathirana, C. and Shahidi, F. 2005. Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry. 93(1): 47-56.
Liu, X., Kuang, X.D., He, X.R., Ren, G., Wang, Y., Xu, L.Y., Feng, L.H., Wang, B. and Zhou, Z.W. 2018. Prenylflavonoids from the Twigs of Artocarpus nigrifolius. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 66(4): 434-438.
Memon, A.H., Ismail, Z., Aisha, A.F., Al-Suede, F.S.R., Hamil, M.S.R., Hashim, S., Saeed, M.A.A., Laghari, M., Majid, A. and Shah, A.M. 2014. Isolation, characterization, crystal structure elucidation, and anticancer study of dimethyl cardamonin, isolated from Syzygium campanulatum Korth. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014: 1-11.
Moongngarm, A. and Saetung, N. 2010. Comparison of chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of germinated rough rice and brown rice. Food Chemistry. 122(3): 782-788.
Mukaka, M.M. 2012. A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal. 24(3): 69-71
Pellati, F., Benvenuti, S., Magro, L., Melegari, M. and Soragni, F. 2004. Analysis of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of Echinacea spp. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 35(2): 289-301.
Pellegrini, N., Serafini, M., Colombi, B., Del Rio, D., Salvatore, S., Bianchi, M. and Brighenti, F. 2003. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Journal of Nutrition. 133(9): 2812-2819.
Pinelo, M., Manzocco, L., Nuñez, M.J. and Nicoli, M.C. 2004. Interaction among phenols in food fortification: negative synergism on antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52(5): 1177-1180.
Piraud, M., Vianey-Saban, C., Petritis, K., Elfakir, C., Steghens, J.P., Morla, A. and Bouchu, D. 2003. ESI-MS/MS analysis of underivatised amino acids: a new tool for the diagnosis of inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism. Fragmentation study of 79 molecules of biological interest in positive and negative ionisation mode. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 17: 1297-1311.
Pramai, P., Abdul Hamid, N.A., Mediani, A., Maulidiani, M., Abas, F. and Jiamyangyuen, S. 2018. Metabolite profiling, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of germinated rice: nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based metabolomics study. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 26(1): 47-57.
Pramai, P. and Jiamyangyuen, S. 2016. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. 38(5): 463-472.
Quirantes-Pine, R., Lozano-Sanchez, J., Herrero, M., Ibanez, E., Segura-Carretero, A. and Fernandez-Gutierrez, A. 2013. HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS as a powerful analytical tool for characterising phenolic compounds in olive-leaf extracts. Phytochemical Analysis. 24(3): 213-223.
Robards, K. 2003. Strategies for the determination of bioactive phenols in plants, fruit and vegetables. Journal of Chromatography A. 1000(1): 657-691.
Saikusa, T., Horino, T. and Mori, Y. 1994. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (Gaba) in the rice germ during water soaking. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 58(12): 2291-2292.
Segarra, G., Jáuregui, O., Casanova, E. and Trillas, I. 2006. Simultaneous quantitative LC–ESI-MS/MS analyses of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in crude extracts of Cucumis sativus under biotic stress. Phytochemistry. 67(4): 395-401.
Sengul, M., Yildiz, H., Gungor, N., Cetin, B., Eser, Z. and Ercisli, S. 2009. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 22(1): 102-106.
Tian, S., Nakamura, K. and Kayahara, H. 2004. Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52(15): 4808-4813.
Xu, B.J. and Chang, S.K. 2007. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents. Journal of Food Science. 72(2): 159-166.
Yang, Z., Nakabayashi, R., Okazaki, Y., Mori, T., Takamatsu, S., Kitanaka, S., Kikuchi, J. and Saito, K. 2014. Toward better annotation in plant metabolomics: isolation and structure elucidation of 36 specialized metabolites from Oryza sativa (rice) by using MS/MS and NMR analyses. Metabolomics. 10(4): 543-555.
Zhang, Q., Zhang, J., Shen, J., Silva, A., Dennis, D.A. and Barrow, C.J. 2006. A simple 96-well microplate method for estimation of total polyphenol content in seaweeds. Journal of Applied Phycology. 18(3): 445-450.
Zhu, K.X., Lian, C.X., Guo, X.N., Peng, W. and Zhou, H.M. 2011. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of various extracts from defatted wheat germ. Food Chemistry. 126(3): 1122-1126