Effects of Drying Temperature and Time on Color, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity in ‘Hua Ruea’ Chili Fruit (Capsicum annuum)
Keywords:Antioxidant, Capsaicin, Total flavonoid, Total phenolics, Pulp color
Chilies, fresh or dried, have culinary value and are rich in bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. Drying used as a postharvest preservation strategy influences the amount of bioactive compounds and therefore the effects of drying temperature and time on color, antioxidants and bioactive compounds in chili fruit cv. Hua Ruea were investigated. Fruits were dried at 60 and 90 °C at various drying times of 3, 6, 21 h and at constant weight of at 60 and 90 °C for 23 and 27 h, respectively. Samples were analyzed for color (a*, Hue angle and total color difference), bioactive compounds (capsaicin: CAP; dihydrocapsaicin: DHC; total phenolic contents: TPC, and total flavonoid contents: TFC), and antioxidant activities (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power: FRAP, ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity). Results indicated that the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities increased with drying time. These values were increased by approximately 2-fold in FRAP, TPC, TFC, CAP and DHC when compared to final drying time of the fresh fruit. The a* value and Hue angle of chilies dried at 60 °C were higher than those dried at 90 °C indicating that the darkening of chilies was influenced by the drying temperature. Moreover, TPC, TFC, CAP and DHC of chilies dried at 60°C were significantly higher than at 90 °C. These results indicated that drying temperature of 60 °C for 27 h and 90 °C for 23 h is suitable for chilies in order to maintain their physical quality and bioactive compounds and therefore providing a foundation for postharvest processing.
Akoy, E.O.M. 2014. Effect of drying temperature on some quality attributes of mango slices. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. 4(2): 91–99.
Arifin, U.F. and Djaeni, M. 2018. Thermal degradation kinetics of capsaicin on drying of blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment red chili pepper. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis. 12(2): 365-372.
Arnao, M.B., Acosta, M., del Rio, J.A. and García-Cánovas, F. 1990. Inactivation of peroxidase by hydrogen peroxide and its protection by a reductant agent. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1308: 85-89.
Arnnok, P., Ruangviriyachai, C., Mahachai, R., Techawongstein, S. and Chanthai, S. 2012. Determination of total phenolics and anthocyanin contents in the pericarp of hot chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). International Food Research Journal. 19(1): 235–243.
Asano, K., Shinagawa, K. and Hashimoto, N. 1982. Characterization of haze-forming proteins of beer and their roles in chill haze formation. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 40: 147–154.
Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC). 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (17th edition). AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
Badarinath, A.V., Rao, M.K., Chetty, M.S.C., Ramkanth, S., Rajan, T.V.S. and Gnanaprakash, K. 2010. A review on in-vitro antioxidant methods: Comparison, correlations and considerations. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2(2): 1276–285.
Chaaban, H., Ioannou, I., Chebil, L., Slimane, M., Gérardin, C., Paris, C., Charbonnel, C., Chekir, L. and Ghoul, M. 2016. Effectt of heat processing on thermal stability and antioxidant activity of six flavonoids. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2017: 1–12.
Gonçalves, I., Silva, C. and Cavaco-Paulo, A. 2015. Ultrasound enhanced laccase applications. Green Chemistry. 17: 1362–1374.
Gupta, P., Ahmed, J., Shivhare, U.S. and Raghavan, G.S.V. 2002. Drying characteristics of red chilli. Drying Technology: An International Journal. 20(10): 1975–1987.
Katritzky, A.R., Xu, Y.J. and Vakulenko, A.V. 2003. Model compounds of caged capsaicin: design, synthesis and photoreactivity. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 68: 9100–9104.
Kozukue, N., Han, J.S., Kozukue, E., Lee, S.J., Kim, J.A., Lee, K.R., Levin, C.E. and Friedman, M. 2005. Analysis of eight capsaicinoids in peppers and pepper-containing foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53: 9172–9181.
Liyana-Pathirana, C.M. and Shahidi, F. 2006. Importance of insoluble-bound phenolics to antioxidant properties of wheat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54: 1256–1264.
Maokam, C., Techawongstien, S. and Chanthai, S. 2014. Determination of major and minor capsaicinoids in different varieties of the Capsicum fruits using GC-MS and their inhibition effect of the chilli extract on α-amylase activity. International Food Research Journal. 21(6): 2237–2243.
Mihindukulasuriya, S.D. and Jayasuriya, H.P.W. 2015. Drying of chilli in a combined infrared and hot air rotary dryer. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52(8): 4895–4904.
Miranda, M., Maureira, H., Rodríguez, K. and Vega-Gálvez, A. 2009. Influence of temperature on the drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant capacity of Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis Miller) gel. Journal of Food Engineering. 91(2): 297–304.
Nimrotham, C., Songprakorp, R., Thepa, S. and Monyakul, V. 2017. Experimental research of drying red chili by two methods: solar drying and low-temperature system drying. Energy Procedia. 138: 512–517.
Ogunruku, O.O., Oboh, G. and Ademosun, A.O. 2014. Water extractable phytochemicals from peppers (Capsicum spp.) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities and prooxidants induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain In Vitro. International Journal of Food Science. 1–7.
Popelka, P., Jevinová, P., Šmejkal, K. and Roba, P. 2017. Determination of capsaicin content and pungency level of different fresh and dried chilli peppers. Folia Veterinaria. 61(2): 11–16.
Prigent, S.V.E., Gruppen, H., Visser, A.J.W.G., van Koningsveld, G.A., De Jong, G.A.H. and Voragen, A.G.J. 2003. Effects of non-covalent interactions with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid) on the heat denaturation and solubility of globular proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 5088–5095.
Réblova, Z. 2012. Effect of temperature on the antioxidant activity of phenolic acids. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 30(2): 171–177.
Reis, R.C., Castro, V.C., Devilla, I.A., Oliveira, C.A., Barbosa, L.S. and Rodovalho, R. 2013. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Para (Capsicum chinense Jacqui). Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 30(2): 337–343.
Schwimmer, S. 1944. Regeneration of heat inactivated peroxidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 154: 487–495.
Shaimaa, G.A., Mahmoud, M.S., Mohamed, M.R. and Emam, A.A. 2016. Effect of heat treatment on phenolic and flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities of some Egyptian sweet and chilli pepper. Natural Products Chemistry and Research. 4: 218.
Shalaby, A.E. and Shanab, M.M.S. 2013. Comparison of DPPH and ABTS assays for determining antioxidant potential of water and methanol extracts of Spirulina platensis. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. 42(5): 556–564.
Shin, Y.H., Kim, J.M. and Park, K. 2016. The effect of capsaicin on salivary gland dysfunction. Molecules. 21: 835–845.
Sricharoen, P., Techawongstein, S. and Chanthai, S. 2015. A high correlation indicating for an evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenolics content of various chilli varieties. Journal of Food Science Technology. 52(2): 8077–8085.
Thongsook, T. and Barrett, D.M. 2005. Heat inactivation and reactivation of broccoli peroxidase. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 3215–3222.
Ternesten-Hasseus, E., Johansson, E.L. and Millqvist, E. 2015. Cough reduction using capsaicin. Respiratory Medicine. 109: 27–37.
Tiwari, A. 2016. A review on solar drying of agricultural produce. Journal of Food Processing and Technology. 7(9): 623.
Toontom, N., Posri, W., Lertsiri, S. and Meenune, M. 2016. Effect of drying methods on Thai chilli’s hotness and pungent odour characteristics and consumer liking. International Food Research Journal. 23(1): 289–299.
Vega-Galvez, A., Di Scala, K., Rodriguez, K., Lemus-Mondace, R., Miranda, M., Lopez, J. and Perez-Won, M. 2009. Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Hungarian). Food Chemistry. 117: 647–653.
Wang, J., Yang, X.H., Mujumdar, A.S., Wang, D., Zhao, J.H., Fang, X.M., Zhang, Q., Xie, L., Gao, Z.J. and Xiao, H.W. 2017. Effects of various blanching methods on weight loss, enzymes inactivation, phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacity, ultrastructure and drying kinetics of red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). LWT-Food Science and Technology. 77: 337–347.
Wangcharoen, W. and Morasuk, W. 2009. Antioxidant capacity changes of bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn.) during hot air drying. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science). 43: 12–20.
Yang, X.H., Deng, L.Z., Mujumdar, A.S., Xiao, H.W., Zhang, Q. and Kan, Z. 2018. Evolution and modeling of colour changes of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during hot air drying. Journal of Food Engineering. 231: 101–108.
Yu, J., Vasantham, T. and Temelli. 2001. Analysis of phenolic acids in barley by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49: 4352–4358.
Zhou, L., Cao, Z., Bi, J., Yi, J., Chen, Q., Wu, X., and Zhou, M. 2016. Degradation kinetics of total phenolic compounds, capsaicinoids and antioxidant activity in red pepper during hot air and infrared drying process. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 51: 842–853.