In vitro Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicity of Peanut Callus Extract
Keywords:Antioxidant, Callus, Cytotoxicity, Peanut, Resveratrol
Resveratrol is widely reported to be beneficial to health by possessing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and antitumor properties. In this study, peanut callus was induced on agar solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplementing with 2 mg/mL of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1 mg/mL of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, and 1 mg/mL of 6-benzylaminopurine. Callus was initially formed from seed as compact yellow texture after 4 weeks with a high yield (90.24%) that was calculated based on the initial weight of seed. The amount of resveratrol was increased by callus culture (190.11 ppm) in comparison to peanut seed (not detected). To investigate the effect of solvent on total phenolic content, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities, callus was extracted with various concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50, 70 and 95 %v/v). The highest phenolic content and bioactivities were found in 95%v/v ethanol extract. Ethanolic peanut callus extract showed the highest phenolic content (0.42 mg gallic acid equivalents per ml extract), ferric reducing power (0.55 mg ascorbic acid equivalents per ml extract), DPPH radical scavenging (88.78%), and tyrosinase inhibition (79.89%). In vitro cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested on human keratinocyte cells by MTT assay. Results showed that peanut callus extract (50% cytotoxic concentration; CC50 16.3%v/v) was found to be lower toxic to keratinocytes than peanut seed extract (CC50 10.57%v/v). Thus, induction of callus of peanut enhances resveratrol, phenolic compounds, antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities which could find interesting applications in food, dietary supplement and cosmetic products.
Ali, A.M.A. and Elnour, M.E.M. 2014. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of callus and seeds extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). International Journal of Science and Research. 3: 1268–1272.
Bahuguna, A., Khan, I., Bajpai, V.K. and Kang, S.C. 2017. MTT assay to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of a drug. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology. 12: 115–118.
Baxter, R.A. 2008. Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 7: 2–7.
Bolda, V.V., Botau, D., Szôllôsi, R., Petô, A., Gallé, A. and Tari, I. 2011. Studies on elemental composition and antioxidant capacity in callus cultures and native plants of Vaccinium myrtillus L. local populations. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 55: 255–259.
Condori, J., Sivakumar, G., Hubstenberger, J., Dolan, M.C., Sobolev, V.S. and Medina-Bolivar, F. 2010. Induced biosynthesis of resveratrol and the prenylated stilbenoids arachidin-1 and arachidin-3 in hairy root cultures of peanut: Effects of culture medium and growth stage. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 48: 310–318.
Hasan, M.M. and Bae, H. 2017. An overview of stress-induced resveratrol synthesis in grapes: perspectives for resveratrol-enriched grape products. Molecules. 22: 1–18.
Kalidass, C., Mohan, V.R. and Daniel, A. 2010. Effect of auxin and cytokinin on vincristine production by callus cultures of Catharanthus roseus L. (apocynaceae). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 12: 283–288.
Kisbenedek, A., Szaboa, S.Z., Polyaka, E., Breitenbacha, Z., Bonab, A., Markb, L. and Figler, M. 2014. Analysis of trans-resveratrol in oilseeds by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acta Alimentaria. 43: 459–464.
Parvez, S., Kang, M., Chung, H.S. and Bae, H. 2007. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries. Phytotherapy Research. 21: 805-816.
Pastar, I., Stojadinovic, O. and Tomic-Canic, M. 2008. Role of keratinocytes in healing of chronic wounds. Surgical Technology International. 17: 105–112.
Saewan, N., Koysomboon, S. and Chantrapromma, K. 2011. Anti-tyrosinase and anti-cancer activities of flavonoids from Blumea balsamifera DC. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 5: 1018–1025.
Schmid, D., Schürch, C., Blum, P., Belser, E. and Zülli, F. 2008. Plant stem cell extract for longevity of skin and hair. SOFW Journal. 134: 29–35.
Schürch, C., Blum, P. and Zülli, F. 2008. Potential of plant cells in culture for cosmetic application. Phytochemistry Reviews. 7: 599–605.
Song, W., Wang, H.J., Bucheli, P., Zhang, P.F., Wei, D.Z. and Lu, Y.H. 2009. Phytochemical profiles of different mulberry (Morus sp.) species from China. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57: 9133–9140.
Sruthi, D. and John Zachariah, T. 2017. In vitro antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of sequential extracts from selected black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) varieties and Piper species. International Food Research Journal. 24: 75–85.
Sun, C., Wu, Z., Wang, Z. and Zhang, H. 2015. Effect of ethanol/water solvents on phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracts. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015: 1–9.
Vichit, W. and Saewan, N. 2015. Antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity of Thai pigmented rice. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 7: 329–334.
Vichit, W. and Saewan, N. 2016. Effect of germination on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and keratinocyte proliferation of rice. International Food Research Journal. 23: 2006–2015.
Wang M.L. and Pittman, R.N. 2008. Resveratrol content in seeds of peanut germplasm quantified by HPLC. Plant Genetic Resources. 7: 80–83.