Optimization of cellulase enzyme from sorghum straw by yeasts isolated from plant feeding-termite Zonocerus variegatus
Production of cellulase enzyme
Keywords:Cellulase, Cellulolytic yeasts, Insect gut, Lignocellulosic, Wikerhamomyces sp
The effective fermentation of cellulose remains an intractable challenge in food industry. The relevant cellulase enzyme is also in a high demand from industry for several biotechnological applications that inevitably in recent times led to many efforts for screening some yeasts for better cellulase production and fermentation performance. Plant-feeding termites can truly be considered as highly efficient natural bioreactors. The highly specialized gut systems of such insects are not yet fully realized, particularly, in cellulose fermentation and cellullase production for industrial applications as well as industrial bioethanol technology. Two yeasts (Wikerhamomyces chambardii and Saccharomyces diaststicus) were used to produce cellulase using sorghum straw (2.5-15%) at pH (4-7) and were incubated at (30-60 oC) for 96 hours. The yeasts utilize sorghum straw and highest cellulase was recorded at 72 hours of fermentation. Highest enzyme activity was achieved with 7.5 % sorghum straw and inoculum concentration. Optimization of growth parameters showed that W. chambardii produced more cellulase enzyme (223 U/ml) than S. diastaticus (211 U/ml), except optimization of inoculum concentration where S. diaststicus produced more (231 U/ml) than W. chambardii (211 U/ml).Optimum pH and temperature for W. chambardii was 4.5 and 45 oC respectively while S. diastaticus was 5.0 and 40 oC respectively. This study suggests cellulolytic yeasts such as W. chambardii and S. diastaticus for cellulase production from lignocellulosic materials.
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