The effect of kappa carrageenan on physical and textural properties as well as sensory parameters on plant protein mixture-based nuggets
Keywords:Plant-based nuggets, Soy protein, Pea protein, Carrageenan, Gluten-free products
This study investigated the effect of kappa carrageenan on physical properties (cooking loss and color), texture profile analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation of
2 recipes plant based nuggets namely soy and pea protein mixture-based nuggets (SPPN) and gluten-free plant protein mixture-based nuggets (GFPN) The ratio of soy protein to pea protein was carried out at three levels: 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25. TPA parameters including hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness were increased as soy protein content increased (P<0.05), but cooking loss decreased (p > 0.05). SPPN at all levels showed different color values from chicken nuggets. SPPN at a 50:50 level was chosen to produce GFPN based on the highest sensory evaluation score. Three levels of kappa carrageenan were added (1%, 3% and 5% by weight) to GFPN and compared with SPPN without kappa carrageenan. The increment of kappa carrageenan levels increased hardness and chewiness (P<0.05), but decreased springiness, cohesiveness and cooking loss (P>0.05). No significant color difference was found between GFPN with 1% kappa carrageenan and the control sample. GFPN with 5% kappa carrageenan was chosen because exhibited the highest ratings for appearance, aroma, texture and overall liking scores (P<0.05). Comparing GFPN with 5% kappa carrageenan to chicken nuggets, crude fiber, fat, protein, carbohydrates and energy were decreased 22%, 15.03%, 4.75%, 17.34%, and 11.81%, respectively whilst increased 47.19% and 6.26, respectively. The combination of carrageenan and a plant-protein mixture (without gluten-free) shows the possibility of developing nuggets.
AACC. 1995. Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 9th ed. Method16-50. The Association. Saint Paul, MN.
AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, (AOAC). International 18th edition, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
Benamirouche, K., Baazize-Ammi, D., Hezil, N., Djezzar, R., Niar, A., and Guetarni, D. 2020. Effect of probiotics and Yucca schidigera extract supplementation on broiler meat quality. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences. 42: pp.e48066.
Bernal, V. M., Smajda, C. H., Smith, J. L. and Stanley, D. W. 1987. Interactions in protein/polysaccharide/calcium gels. Journal of Food Science. 52(5): 1121-1125.
Bildstein, M., Lohmann, M., Hennigs, C., Krause, A. and Hilz, H. 2008. An enzyme-based extraction process for the purification and enrichment of vegetable proteins to be applied in bakery products. European Food Research and Technology. 228(2): 177-186. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-0921-z.
Bohrer, B. M. 2019. An investigation of the formulation and nutritional composition of modern meat analogue products. Food Science and Human Wellness. 8(4): 320–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2019.11.006.
Chiang, J., Loveday, S., Hardacre, A. and Parker, M. 2019. Effects of soy protein to wheat gluten ratio on the physicochemical properties of extruded meat analogues. Food Structure. 19: pp.100102.
Hirota, N. and Nagai, K. 2022. Helical structures and water vapor sorption properties of carrageenan membranes derived from red algae. Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications. 3: pp.100200.
Kamani, M. H., Meera, M. S., Bhaskar, N. and Modi, V. K. 2019. Partial and total replacement of meat by plant-based proteins in chicken sausage: evaluation of mechanical, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 56(5): 2660–2669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03754-1.
Kitcharoenthawornchai, N. and Harnsilawat, T. 2015. Characterization of meat analogue nugget: effect of textured vegetable protein. Food and Applied Bioscience Journal. 3(2): 121-129.
Kubola, J., Nitisook, P., Sihamala, O., Wongpreedee, P. and Phujrit, S. 2021. Effect of the ycopene fortification from gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinesis) on quality of chicken nuggets product. RMUTP Research Journal Special Issue. The 5th Rajamangala University of Technology National Conference. pp.268-273.
Kyriakopoulou, K., Keppler, J. K. and van der Goot, A. J. 2021. Functionality of ingredients and additives in plant-Based meat analogues. Foods. 10(3): 600. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030600
Nanta, P., Skolpap, W. and Kasemwong, K. 2021. Influence of hydrocolloids on the rheological and textural attributes of a gluten-free meat analog based on soy protein isolate. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 45(3): pp.e15244. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.15244.
O'Kane, F. E., Vereijken, J. M., Gruppen, H. and Boekel, M. A., 2006. Gelation behavior of protein isolates extracted from 5 cultivars of Pisum sativum L. Journal of Food Science. 70(2): 132-137.
Palanisamy, M., Töpfl, S., Aganovic, K. andBerger, R. G. 2018. Influence of iota carrageenan addition on the properties of soya protein meat analogues. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 87C(2): 546-552.
Pereira, L. 2016. Carrageenan: sources and extraction methods, molecular structure, bioactive properties and health effects. L. Pereira (Ed.). Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated.
Pietrasik, Z. and Jarmoluk, A. 2003. Effect of sodium caseinate and k-carrageenan on binding and textural properties of pork muscle gels enhanced by microbial transglutaminase addition. Food Research International. 36(3): 285-294.
Poynton, C. 1996. Gamma. In C. Poynton (Ed.), A technical introduction to digital video. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp.94-114.
Rizvi, S., Blaisdell, J., and Harper, W. 1980. Thermal diffusivity of model meat analog systems. Journal of Food Science. 45(6): 1727-1731.
Sakamut, S. and Sajjabut, S. 2021. Improvement of Threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) surimi gel properties by electron beam irradiation. International Journal of Agricultural Technology 17(5): 1921-1934.
Schreuders, F., Dekkers, B., Bodnar, I., Erni, P., Boom, R. and Goot, A. 2019. Comparing structuring potential of pea and soy protein with gluten for meat analogue preparation. Journal of Food Engineering. 261: 32–39.
Shafie, M. H., Kamal, M. L., Zulkiflee, F. F., Hasan, S., Uyup, N. H., Abdullah, S., Hussin, N. M., Tan, Y. C. and Zafarina, Z. 2022. Application of carrageenan extract from red seaweed (Rhodophyta) in cosmetic products: A review. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 99: pp.100613.
Shand, P. J., Ya, H., Pietrasik, Z., Wanasundara, P. K. J. P. D., 2007. Physicochemical and textural properties of heat-induced pea protein isolate gels. Food Chemistry. 102(4): 1119-1130. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.060.
Singh, M., Trivedi, N., Enamala, M. K., Kuppam, C., Parikh, P., Nikolova, M. P. and Chavali, M. 2021. Plant based meat analogue (PBMA) as a sustainable food: a concise review. European Food Research and Technology. 247(10): 2499-2526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-021-03810-1.
Tecante, A. and Nunez Santiago, M. C. 2012. Solution properties of κ-carrageenan and its interaction with other polysaccharides in aqueous media. Rheology. 1: 241-264.
Tunnarut, D., Nopwinyuwong, A., and Tanakamolpradit, T. 2022. Effect of textured vegetable protein type on quality of plant-based meat product. Journal of Food Technology, Siam University. 17(1): 1-13.
Yuliarti, O., Kovis, K. J. T., and Yi, J. N. 2021. Structuring the meat analogue by using plant-based derived composites. Journal of Food Engineering. 288: 110-138.
Ziobro, R., Korus, J., Witczak, M. and Juszczak, L. 2012. Influence of modified starches on properties of gluten-free dough and bread. Part II: Quality and staling of gluten-free bread. Food Hydrocolloids. 29(1): 68-74.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Food and Applied Bioscience Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.