UV-C Disinfection in the Environment of Pathogen Transmission


  • Charuvan Kasemsap Department of Engineering Management, Graduate School, Kasem Bundit University


UV-C, Disinfection, Environment, COVID-19


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection caused by SAR-COV-2 (COVID-19 virus). COVID-19 typically rapidly spread from one person to another via respiratory droplets (>5-10 μm in diameter) during coughing and sneezing or touch. Thus, environmental surfaces should be frequently cleaned with water, detergent, and followed by application of disinfection as chemical disinfectants and physical disinfection. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is the use of ultraviolet energy to inactivate viral, bacterial, and fungal species because the UVC directly damages deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Ribonucleic acid (RNA), and also prevent the bacterium from being viable. The most effective wavelength is in 245 -285 nm. Conventional ultraviolet disinfection consists of a mercury amalgam, which is a hazardous material to the environment. In addition, excessive exposure causes sunburn skin, skin cancer and damage to the corneas of the eyes. Therefore, the risk management such as enclosure cabinets, indicator warning sign light, and personal protection equipment (PPE) should be considered.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams, E., de Paula, V.D. C.S., Carneiro, R. D., de Lima, R. M., Gomes, M.F., Ramsdorf, W.A., & de Freitas, A. M. (2018). Ecotoxicity of Malathion® 500 CE before and after UVC radiation and UV/H2O2 treatment. Eclética Química Journal, 43(2), 44-50.

Ahmed O.M., & Amin, H.F. (2019). Effect of UV-C radiation on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated fish fillets from fresh water and marine sources. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, 23(1), 151-159.

Amor, C., Chueca, J.R., Fernandes, J.L., Domínguez, J.R., Lucas, M.S., & Peres, J.A. (2019). Winery wastewater treatment by sulphate radical based-advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOP): Thermally VS UV-assisted persulphate activation. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 122, 94-101.

Artichowicz, W., Luczkiewicz, A., & Sawicki, J.M. (2020). Analysis of the radiation dose in UV-disinfection flow reactors. Water, 12(231), 1-15.

Basti, D., Bricknell, I., Beane, D., & Bouchard, D. (2009). Recovery from a near-lethal exposure to ultraviolet-C radiation in a scleractinian coral. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 101, 43-48.

Canto, A.C.V. da C.S., Monteiro, M.L.G., Costa-Lima, B.R.C. da., Marsico, C.A. L.E.T., Silva, T.F.J. P.da., & Conte-Junior, C.A. (2019). Effect of UV-C radiation on Salmonella spp. reduction and oxidative stability of Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) meat. Journal of Food Safety, 39, 1-7.

Carlowicz, M. (2013). The ozone layer: Our global sunscreen. ChemMatters, 12-14.

Casini, B., Tuvo, B., Cristina, M.L., Spagnolo, A.M., Totaro, M., Baggiani, A., & Privitera, G. P. (2019). Evaluation of an ultraviolet C (UVC) light-emitting device for disinfection of high touch surfaces in hospital critical areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3572), 1-10.

Chen, A.- J., Luo, W., Luo, Y.-B., & Zhu, B.-Z. (2017). Combined treatment of ultraviolet-C and L. phantarum on Salmonella enteritidia and quality control of fresh-cut apple. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42, 1-9.

Cirrincione, L., Plescia, F., Ledda, C., Rapisarda, V., Martorana, D., Moldovan, R.E., …& Cannizzaro, E. (2020). Protocol COVID-19 pandemic: Prevention and protection measures to be adopted at the workplace. Sustainability, 12(3603), 1-18.

Darnell, M.E., Subbarao, K., Feinstone, S.M., & Taylor, D.R. (2004). Inactivation of the coronavirus that induces severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV. Journal of Virological Methods, 121(1), 85-91.

Department of Public Health (2020). Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Los Angeles County cleaning & disinfection matrix, 1-3. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from http://www.publichealth.lacounty.gov/media/Coronavirus/docs/protection/CleaningMatrix.pdf

Duan, S.M., Zhao, X.S., Wen, R.F., Huang. J.J., Pi, G.H., Zhang. S.X., Han, J., Ruan, S.L., Dong, X.P., & SARS Research Team. (2003). Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation. Biomedical and Environmental Science, 16, 246-255.

Eickmann, M., Gravemann, U., Handke, W., Tolksdorf, F., Reichenberg, S., M€uller, T.H., & Seltsam, A. (2020). Inactivation of three emerging viruses-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and Nipah virus-in platelet concentrates by ultraviolet C light and in plasma by methylene blue plus visible light. The International Journal of the Transfusion Medicine, Vox Sanguinis, 1-5.

Elgujja, A.A., Altalhi, H.H., & Ezreqat, S. (2020). Review of the efficacy of ultraviolet C for surface decontamination. Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine, 3(1), 7-12.

Environmental Protection Agency.(EPA) (1999). United States, Wastewater technology fact sheet: Ultraviolet disinfection, September, EPA 832-F-99-064, 1-7. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/uv.pdf.

Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan [FAD PReP], National Animal Health Emergency Management System (NAHEMS), USDA, & United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services. (2014). NAHEMS guidelines: Cleaning and disinfection, 1-58. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/nahems_guidelines/cleaning_disfection.pdf.

Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan [FAD PReP] & United State Department of Agriculture (2018). Standard operating procedures: 15. cleaning and disinfection, 1-52. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergency_management/downloads/sop/sop_cd.pdf

Global Lighting Association (2020). Position statement on germicidal UV-C irradiation: UV-C safety guidelines, 1-3. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.globallightingassociation.org/images/files/publications/GLA_UV-C_Safety_Position_Statement.pdf.

Guo, Y.R., Cao, Q.-D., Hong, Z.-S., Tan, Y.-Y., Chen, S.-D., Jin, H.-J., … &Yan, Y. (2020). Review: The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Military Medical Research, 7(11), 1-10.

Guridi, A., Sevillano, E., Fuente, I., Mateo, E., Eraso, E., & Quindós, G. (2019). Disinfectant activity of a portable ultraviolet C equipment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(4747), 1-11.

Häder, D.-P., Kumer, H.D., Smith, R.C., & Worrest, R.C. (2007). Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystem and interactions with climate change. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 6, 267-285.

Hafeez, A., Ahmad, S., Siddqui, S.A., Ahmad, M., & Mishra, S. (2020). A review of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) diagnosis, treatments and prevention. EJMO Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology, 4(2), 116–125.

Idzwana, M., I.N., Chou, K.S., Shah, R.M., & Soh, N.C. (2019). The effect of ultraviolet light treatment in extend shelf life and pressure the quality of strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) CV.Festival. International Journal of Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources, 1(1), 15-18.

Inagaki, H., Saito, A., Sugiyama, H., Okabayashi, T., & Fujimoto, S. (2020). Rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 with Deep-UV LED irradiation. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 9(1), 1744-1747.

Jones, C.L. (2020). Environmental surface contamination with SARS-CoV-2-a short review. Journal of Human Virology & Retrovirology, 8(1), 15‒19.

Kalyani, V.L., Mathur, P., Makwana, N., & Singhal, N. (2020). Study on Coronavirus (COVID-19) and how UVC light helps to destroy it and its Applications. Journal of Management Engineering and Information Technology. 7(3), 19-23.

Kamaruzzaman, S.N. & Sabrani, N.A. (2011). The effect of indoor air quality (IAQ) towards occupants’ psychological performance in office buildings. Journal of Design + Built: IAQ in Office Building, 4, 49-61.

Kerr, J.B. (2005). Understanding the factors that affect surface ultraviolet radiation. Optical Engineering, 44(4), 1-9.

Kim, D.-K., & Kang, D.-H. (2018). UVC LED irradiation effectively inactivates aerosolized viruses, bacteria, and fungi in a chamber-type air disinfection system. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 84(17), 1-11.

Kujundzic, E., Matalkah, F. Howard, C.J., Hernandez, M., & Miller, S.L. (2006). UV air cleaners and upper-room air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for controlling airborne bacteria and fungal spores. Journal of Occupational and Environment Hygiene, 3, 536-546.

Lee, L.D. (2017). Surface and air: what impact does UV-C at the room level have on airborne and surface bacteria ? Canadian Journal of Infection Control, 32(2), 108-111.

Makarapong, D., Tantayanon, S., Gowanit, C., & Inchaisri, C. (2020). Development of an innovative apparatus using UV-C for controlling the number of microorganisms in raw milk after milking. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 73(1), 301-305.

Martin, Jr., S.B., Dunn, C., Freihaut, J.D., Bahnfleth, W.P., Lau, J., & Nedeljkovic-Davidovic, A. (2008). Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation current best practices. ASHRAE Journal, 8, 28-36.

Memarzadech, F., Olmsted, R. N., & Bartley, J.M. (2010). Applications of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation disinfection in health care facilities: Effective adjunct, but not stand-alone technology. American Journal of Infection Control, 6, S13-S24.

Mori, M., Hamamoto, A., Takahashi, A., Nakano, M., Wakikawa, N., Tachibana, S.,…& Kinouchi, Y. (2007). Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED. Med Bio Eng Comput Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 45, 1237-1241.

Moussari, G., Fathi, E., & Moradi, M. (2019). Advanced disinfecting and pest-treating the biologically treated hospital wastewater in the UVC/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes: Performance comparison and detoxification efficiency. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 126, 259-268.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA]. (2020). Guidance on preparing workplaces for COVID-19. U.S. Department of Labor, 3990-03, 1-35. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3990.pdf

Ogilvie, B.H, Solis-Leal, A., Lopez, J.B., Poole, B.D., Robison, R.A., & Berges, B.K. (2021). Alcohol-free hand sanitizer and other quaternary ammonium disinfectants quickly and effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Hospital Infection, 108, 142-145.

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). (2018). Best practices for environmental cleaning for prevention and control of infections in all health care settings (3rd ed.). Toronto, Canada: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Orazio, J. D’., Jarrett, S., Amaro-Ortiz, A., & Scott, T. (2013). UV radiation and the skin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 12222-12248.

Pan American Health Organization [PAHO] & World Health Organization [WHO]. (2020). Epidemiological Update: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19), 1-8. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://iris.paho.org/handle/10665.2/51907.

Paria, M., Simpser, E., Becker, M., Mainquist, W.K., & Velez, K.A. (2018). The effect of ultraviolet-C technology on viral infection incidence in a pediatric long-term care facility. American Journal of Infection Control, 46, 720-722.

Poushand, F., Aramideh, S., & Forouzan, M. (2017). Effect of Ultra violet light (UV-C) in different times and heights on adults stage of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Stidies, 5(1), 864-868.

Ragan, I., Hartson, L., Pidcoke, H., Bowen, R., & Goodrich, R. (2020). Pathogen reduction of SARS-CoV-2 virus in plasma and whole blood using riboflavin and uv light. PLOS ONE, 29, 1-11.

Renzel, A. (2016). Disinfection with UVC General information, UV lamps and disinfection systems, UV measurement for UVC disinfection applications. uv-technik meyer gmbh, 1-12. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.uv-technik.co.uk/assets/Uploads/product-documents/Disinfection-UV-C-Explained2.pdf

Rios, F., Kucharczyk, M.O., Gmurek, M., & Ledakowicz, S. (2017). Removal efficiency of anionic surfactants from water during UVC photolysis and advanced oxidation process in H2O2/UVC system. Archives of Environmental Protection, 43(1), 20-26.

Rivera-Gutiérrez, D., Char, C., Escalous, V.H., Chares, A.R., & RodRíGuEZ, S.v.D.C. (2015). Application of UV-C Radiation in the conservation of minimally processed rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39, 3117-3127.

Rutala, W.A., Weber, D.J., & the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). (2019). Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities: 2008, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 1-163. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/pdf/guidelines/disinfection-guidelines-H.pdf

Sagripanti, J.L., & Lytle, C.D. (2011), Sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation of Lassa, vaccinia, and Ebola viruses dried on surfaces. Arch Virol, 156, 489-494.

Salem, H., Binashikhbubkr, H., Wang, X., Zhou, L.T., Naji, W.Q., Chengwang, Z., & Zhong, G.Z. (2020). Novel corona-virus transmission and prevention. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(1:3), 1-2.

Sangadkit, W., Deepatana, A., & Thipayarat, A. (2020). Effects of combined ozonation and UV-C treatment or vapored hydrogen peroxide fumigation to inactivate Escherichia coli and Asperjillus niger contaminants in rice noodle industry. Srinakharinwirot University (Journal of Science and Technology), 12(23), 1-16.

Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER). (2017). Opinion on biological effects of ultraviolet radiation relevant to health with particular reference to sunbeds for cosmetic purposes, 1-102. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.kanker.be/sites/default/files/scheer_-_opinion_on_biological_effects_of_ultraviolet_radiation_relevant_to_health_with_particular_reference_to_sunbeds_for_ cosmetic_purposes.pdf

Seong, J.Y., Kwon, K.-H., & Oh, S.W. (2016). Combined effect of aerosolized malic acid and UV-C for the inactivation of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut lettuce. Journal of Food Safety, 37, 1-9.

Shereen, M.A., Khan, S., Kazmi, A., Bashir, N., & Siddique, R. (2020). COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research, 24, 91–98.

Siahpoosh, Z.H., & Soleimani, M. (2017). Photocatalytic degradation of azo anionic dye (RR 120) in ZnOGhezeljeh nanoclay composite catalyst/UV-C system: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, III, 180-193.

Silva, H.L.A., Costa, M.P., Frasao, B.S., Mesquita, E.F.M., Mello, S.C.R.P., Conte-junior, C.A., ... Miranda, Z.B. (2015). Efficacy of ultraviolet-C light to eliminate Staphylococcus aureus on pre-cooked shredded bullfrog back meat. Journal of Food Safety, 35(3), 318-323.

Simons, R.M., Pagan, J., & Lawal, O. (2018). Low-maintenance, Consumables-free disinfection by UV-C LEDs. In the 48th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Albuquerque, New Mexico Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/74131.

Singhal, T. (2020). A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87(4), 281–286.

Solomon, K.R. (2008). Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment, AtmosphereOcean, 46(1),185-202.

Szeto, W., Yam, W.C., Huang, H., & Leung, D.Y.C. (2020). The efficacy of vacuum-ultraviolet light disinfection of some common environmental pathogens, BMC Infectious Diseases, 20, 127-1-9.

Vatansever, F., Ferraresi, C., Sousa, M.V.P. de., Yin, R., Rineh, A., Sharma, S.K., & Hamblin, M.R. (2013). Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light? Virulence, 4(8), 1-30.

Vorapaluk, P. (2020). Effectiveness study of disinfection of microbes by innovation robotic UVC radiation: Response to COVID-19 pandemic. Thai Journal of Anesthesiology, 46(3), 8-15.

Walker, C., & Ko, G. (2007). Effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on viral aerosols. Environ. Sci. Technol, 41, 5460-5465.

Warren, B.G., Masker, J., Brown, G., Gamez, I., Smith, B., Anderson, D. J., & Turner, N. (2020). Efficacy of UV-C disinfection in hyperbaric chambers. Infectious Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 17(Jun), 1-4.

World Health Organization, World Meterological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme, & International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (2002). Global solar UV index: A practical guide, 1-28. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.who.int/uv/publications/en/UVIGuide.pdf.

World Health Organization (2020a) Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation report-115. 1-18. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200514-covid-19-sitrep-115.pdf?sfvrsn=3fce8d3c_6.html.

World Health Organization (2020b). Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the context of COVID-19 interim guidance, 1-8. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331058/WHO-2019-nCoV-Environment_protocol-2020.1-eng.pdf

World Health Organization. (2020c). Surface sampling of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A practical “how to” protocol for health care and public health professionals, 1-26. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331058.html

Xiao, Y., Chu, X. N., He, M., Liu, X. C., & Hu, J. Y. (2018). Impact of UVA pre-radiation on UVC disinfection performance: Inactivation, repair and mechanism study. Water research, 141, 279-288.

Zhou, W. (2020). The coronavirus prevention handbook: 101 science-based tips that could save your life. Wuhan, China: Hubei Science and Technology Press.




How to Cite

Kasemsap, C. (2023). UV-C Disinfection in the Environment of Pathogen Transmission. Journal of Food Health and Bioenvironmental Science, 14(1), 64–72. Retrieved from https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/sdust/article/view/260580



Review Articles