Evaluation of Terminalia chebula Retz. Extract against Caries-associated Bacteria as an Alternative Compound for Oral Care Products
Keywords:Terminalia chebula Retz., Streptococcus mutans, Dental caries,, Biofilm
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit extract for further use as an active ingredient in oral care products. The quantification of major constituent, the antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of an extract against Streptococcus mutans in both planktonic and biofilm form were measured. The results showed that ellagic acid was the major constituent of an extract and the amount of ellagic acid contained in the extract was 36.671 mg/g. The extract exhibit free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.44±0.01 mg/mL by DPPH assay. For antibacterial activity against S. mutans, T. chebula Retz. extract possess high inhibitory effect on S. mutans in both planktonic form and biofilm form. The MIC50 and MBC value of an extract against planktonic form of S. mutans were 0.47±0.28 and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. For biofilm form of S. mutans, the extract has a high capability to preventing biofilm formation and eradicating the existing biofilm. The MBIC50 and MBEC50 of an extract against biofilm form of S. mutants were 4.47±0.32 and 9.64±0.39 mg/mL, respectively
Ahmad, I., & Beg, A.Z. (2001). Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 74, 113-123.
Aneja, K.R., & Joshi, R. (2009). Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of fruit extracts of Terminalia chebula against dental caries pathogens. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 2, 105–114.
Bag, A., Bhattacharyya, S.K., Bharati, P., Pal, N.K., & Chattopadhyay, R.R. (2009). Evaluation of antibacterial properties of chebulic myrobalan (fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz.) extracts against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and trimethoprim- sulphamethoxazole resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli. African Journal of Plant Science, 3(2), 025-029.
Bag, A., Bhattacharyya, S.K., Pal, N.K., & Chattopadhyay, R.R. (2012). In vitro antimicrobial potential of Terminalia chebula fruit extracts against multidrugresistant uropathogens. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2, S1883-S1887.
Barazani, V.O., Sathiyomoorthy, P., Shalev, R., Vardy, D., & Golan, G.A. (2003). Screening of South-Indian medicinal plants for anti-fungal activity. Pharmacological Research, 17, 1123-1125.
Brookes, Z., Bescos, R., Belfield, L.A., Ali, K., & Roberts, A. (2020). Current uses of chlorhexidine for management of oral disease: A narrative review. Journal of Dentistry, 103, 103497.
Bowen, W.H., & Koo, H. (2011). Biology of Streptococcus mutans- derived glucosyltransferases: Role in extracellular matrix formation of cariogenic biofilms. Caries Research, 45, 69–86.
Colak, H., Dulgergil, C.T., Dalli, M., & Hamidi, M.M. (2013). Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 4, 29-38.
Davies, D. (2003). Understanding biofilm resistance to antibacterial agents. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2, 114-122.
Gilbert, P., Maira-Litran, T., McBain, A.J., Rickard, A.H., & Whyte, F.W. (2002). The physiology and collective recalcitrance of microbial biofilm communities. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 46, 202–256.
Juang, L.J., Sheu, S.J., & Lin, T.C. (2004). Determination of hydrolyzable tannins in the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Separation Science, 27, 718–724.
Kannan, P., Ramadevi, S.R., & Hopper, W. (2009). Antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula fruit extract. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3, 180-184.
Kedare, S.B., & Singh, R.P. (2011). Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48, 412-422.
Koo, H., Hayacibara, M.F., Schobel, B.D., Cury, J.A., Rosalen, P.L., Park, Y.K., … Bowen, W.H. (2003). Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm accumulation and polysaccharide production by apigenin and tt-farnesol. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 52, 782-789.
Kumar, A., Lakshman, K., Jayaveera, K., Satish, K., & Tripathi, S. (2012). Estimation of rutin and quercetin Terminalia chebula by HPLC. Internet Journal of Aesthetic and Antiaging Medicine, 2, 1-2.
Lee, S. (2013). Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci. Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry, 51, 484-489.
Lee, H.S., Jung, S.H., Yun, B.S., & Lee, K.W. (2007a). Isolation of chebulic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. and its antioxidant effect in isolated rat hepatocytes. Archives of Toxicology, 81, 211-18.
Lee, D.Y., Kim, H.W., Yang, H., & Sung, S.H. (2017b). Hydrolyzable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemistry, 137, 109–116.
Lee, J., Nho, Y.H., Yun, S.K., & Hwang, Y.S. (2017c). Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17, 113.
Lin, T., Nonaka, G. I., Nishioka, I., & Ho, F. C. (1990). Tannins and related compounds: CII: Structures of terchebulin, an ellagitannin having a novel tetraphenylcarboxylic acid (Terchebulic acid) moiety, and biogenetically related tannins from Terminalia chebula Retz. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 38, 3004–3008.
Loo, W., Jin, L.J., Cheung, M., & Chow, L. (2010). Evaluation of ellagic acid on the activities of oral bacteria with the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 3938-3943.
Mai Nguyen, P.T., Schultze, N., Boger, C., Alresley, Z., Bolhuis, A., & Lindequist, U. (2017). Anticaries and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract from leaves of Cleistocalyx operculatus L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7, 43-48.
Mathur, V.P., & Dhillon, J.K. (2018). Dental caries: A disease which needs attention. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 85, 202-206.
Miklasińska-Majdanik, M., Kępa, M., Wojtyczka, R.D., Idzik, D., & Wąsik, T.J. (2018). Phenolic compounds diminish antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(10), 2321.
Nayak, S.S., Ankola, A.V., Metgud, S.C., & Bolmal, U.K. (2014). An in vitro study to determine the effect of Terminalia chebula extract and its formulation on Streptococcus mutans. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 15, 278-282.
Nair, V., Singh, S., & Gupta, Y.K. (2010). Anti-arthritic and disease modifying activity of Terminalia chebula Retz. in experimental models. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 62, 1801–1806.
Nigam, M., Mishra, A.P., Adhikari-Devkota, A., Dirar, A.I., Hassan, M., Adhikari, A., … Devkota, H.P. (2020). Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.: A review on traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Phytotherapy Research, 34, 2518–2533.
Pfundstein, B., Desouky, S., Hull, W.E., Haubner, R., Erben, G., & Owen, R. (2010). Polyphenolic compounds in the fruits of Egyptian medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida): Characterization, quantitation and determination of antioxidant capacities. Phytochemistry, 71, 1132-1148.
Prakash, S.D.V., Satya, S.N., & Vangalapati, M. (2012). Purification of chebulinic acid from Terminalia chebula species by column chromatography. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 2, 1753.
Prompamorn, P., Itsarasook, K., Chantree, K., Modsuwan, J., & Panichkul, T. (2022). Evaluation of Terminalia Chebula Retz. extract as a natural preservative for cosmetic products. Burapha Science Journal, 27, 542-561.
Pytko-Polończyk, J., Stawarz-Janeczek, M., Kryczyk-Poprawa, A., & Muszyńska, B. (2021). Antioxidant-rich natural raw materials in the prevention and treatment of selected oral cavity and periodontal diseases. Antioxidants, 11, 1848.
Ratnam, D.V., Ankola, D.D., Bhardwaj, V., Sahana, D. K., & Kumar, M.N. (2006). Role of antioxidants in prophylaxis and therapy: A pharmaceutical perspective. Journal of Controlled Release, 113, 189–207.
Rekha, V., Vijayalakshmi, D., Kumar, N., & Manipal, S. (2014). Anti cariogenic effect of Terminalia chebula. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8, 51-54.
Ríos, J., Giner, R.M., Marin, M., & Carmen Recio, M. (2018). A pharmacological update of ellagic acid. Planta Medica, 84, 1068-1093.
Sabu, M.C., & Kuttan, R. (2002). Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 81, 155-160.
Saha, S., & Verma, R.J. (2018).Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius fruits. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 10, 805-812.
Sakaue, Y., Takenaka, S., Ohsumi, T., Domon, H., Terao, Y., & Noiri, Y. (2018). The effect of chlorhexidine on dental calculus formation: An in vitro study. BMC Oral Health, 18, 52.
Saleem, A., Husheem, M., Harkonen, P., & Pihlaja, K. (2002). Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 81, 327-336.
Sarjit, A. Wang, Y., & Dykes, G.A. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of gallic acid against thermophilic Campylobacter is strain specific and associated with a loss of calcium ions. Food Microbiology. 46, 227–233.
Sim, C.P., Dashper, S.G., & Reynolds, E.C. (2016). Oral microbial biofilm models and their application to the testing of anticariogenic agents. Journal of Dentistry, 50, 1-11.
Singh, S., Singh, S.K., Chowdhury, I., & Singh, R. (2017). Understanding the mechanism of bacterial biofilms resistance to antimicrobial agents. The Open Microbiology Journal, 11, 53–62.
Shemesh, M., Tam, A., & Steinberg, D. (2007). Differential gene expression profiling of Streptococcus mutans cultured under biofilm and planktonic conditions. Microbiology, 153, 1307–1317.
Svensäter, G., Welin, J., Wilkins, J.C., Beighton, D., & Hamilton, I.R. (2001). Protein expression by planktonic and biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 205, 139-146.
Tasduq, S.S., Singh, A.K., Salti, N.K, Gupta, D.K., & Suri, K. (2006). Terminalia chebula fruits prevent liver toxicity caused by sub-chronic adminstration of refampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (PZA) in combination. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 25, 11-18.
Teanpaisan, R., Senapong, S., & Puripattanavong, J. (2014). In vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Artocarpus lakoocha (Moraceae) extract against some oral pathogens. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 13, 1149.
Van Strydonck, D.A., Slot, D.E., Van der Velden, U., & Van der Weijden, F. (2012). Effect of a chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 39, 1042–1055.
Verderosa, A.D., Totsika, M., & Fairfull-Smith, K.E. (2019). Bacterial biofilm eradication agents: A current review. Frontiers in Chemistry, 7, 824.
Yan, L., & Zhou, X. (2020). Study on in vitro anti-bacterial activity and mechanism of ellagic acid on Streptococcus mutans. China Pharmacy, 12, 607-611
Yang, Y.H., Wang, Z., Zheng, J., & Wang, R. (2015). Protective effects of gallic acid against spinal cord injury-induced oxidative stress. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 12, 3017–3024.
Yarnpakdee, S., Benjakul, S., & Senphan, T. (2015). Antioxidant activity of the extracts from freshwater macroalgae (Cladophora glomerata) grown in Northern Thailand and its preventive effect against lipid oxidation of refrigerated eastern little tuna slice. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19, 209-219.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.