Lipid Production of Marine Green Microalgae Chlorella protothecoides BUUC1601 by Using Spent Coffee Grounds Hydrolysate
Keywords:Fatty acid, Marine green microalgae, Chlorella protothecoides, Lipid production, Spent coffee grounds hydrolysate
Spent coffee grounds are an organic waste that can be used as a source of microbial organic carbon. In this research, coffee grounds were hydrolyzed into a solution called spent coffee grounds hydrolysate (SCGH) using concentrated sulfuric acid. Then, the marine green microalgae, C. protothecoides BUUC1601, was cultured using SCGH. Growth performance and lipid accumulation of the microalgae were evaluated. The microalgae were cultured using a standard F/2 medium without and with SCGH added in the range of 2.5-15% of culture media (v/v). It was found that the microalgae had similar growth performance and biomass yield, i.e., the specific growth rate was in the range of 0.87-1.12 day-1 and the biomass yield was in the range of 0.05-0.08 g DW/L/day. Microalgae cultivation using F/2 with SCGH had an effect on lipid accumulation. It was found that using SCGH at 15% of the total volume resulted in an increase in the amount of lipid accumulation up to 66.03% of the dry weight. Of these, it was 2.89 times higher than the lipid content of microalgae cultured with no SCGH added. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids ranged from 46.15% to 46.53% and polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 32.40% to 34.62% of the total fatty acid content. Oleic acid (C18:1n9), an omega-9 fatty acid, was found to be the most abundant, accounting for over 30% of the total fatty acid content. In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid (C18:2n6) and gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n6) were found to be lower, accounting for 25.99%-27.20% and 6.03%-7.01% of the total fatty acid content, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acid such as alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) was found at 4.20% in microalgae cultured using standard F/2 medium without SCGH, which was higher than in microalgae cultured with the addition of SCGH. Therefore, the addition of SCGH at a concentration of 2.5%-15% (v/v) can be used to cultivate C. protothecoides BUUC1601 for the lipid production with high unsaturated fatty acid content, which has the potential to be used in both aquaculture and functional food supplementation.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (1997). Officials methods of analysis of AOAC International. Gaithersburg: AOAC International.
Ballesteros, L.F., Teixeira, J.A., & Mussatto, S.I. (2014). Chemical, functional, and structural properties of spent coffee grounds and coffee silverskin. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 3493-3503.
Cheng, K.C., Ren, M., & Ogden, K.L., (2013). Statistical optimization of culture media for growth and lipid production of Chlorella protothecoides UTEX 250. Bioresource Technology, 128, 44-48.
Christie, W.W. (2003). Lipid analysis: Isolation, separation, identification and structural analysis of lipids (3rd ed.). Bridgewater, UK: The oily Press.
Converti, A., Casazza, A.A., Ortiz, E.Y., Perego, P., & Del Borghi, M. (2009). Effect of temperature and nitrogen concentration on the growth and lipid content of Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 48(6), 1146-1151.
Cruz-Lopes, L., Domingos, I., Ferreira, J., & Esteves, B. (2017). A new way of using spent coffee ground. Journal of International Scientific Publications, 5, 85-93.
Da Rosa, A.P.C., Moraes, L., de Morais, E.G., & Costa, J.A.V. (2020). Fatty acid biosynthesis from Chlorella in autotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 63, e20180534.
Deshmukh, S., Bala, K., & Kumar, R. (2019). Selection of microalgae species based on their lipid content, fatty acid profile and apparent fuel properties for biodiesel production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(24), 24462-24473.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.T., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28(3), 350-356.
Fei, Q., Fu, R., Shang, L., Brigham, C.J., & Chang, H.N. (2015). Lipid production by microalgae Chlorella protothecoides with volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as carbon sources in heterotrophic cultivation and its economic assessment. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 38(4), 691-700.
Ferreira, G.F., Pinto, L.F.R, Filho, R.M., & Fregolente, L.V. (2009). Microalgal biomass as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids for industrial application: A mini-review. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 74, 163-168.
Ferreira, S.P., Holz, J.C.P, Lisboa, C.R., & Costa, J.A.V. (2017). Fatty acid profile of Chlorella biomass obtained by fed batch heterotrophic cultivation. International Food Research Journal, 24(1), 284-291.
Folch, J., Lees, M., & Sloane Stanley, G.H. (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226(1), 497-509.
Guillard, R.R.L. (1973). Culture methods and growth measurements method for microflagellates and nanoplankton. In J.R. Stein, (Ed). Handbook of Phycological Methods: Culture Methods and Growth Measurements (pp. 69-86). NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Hariyadi, D.M., Tedja, C.A., Zubaidah, E., Yuwono, S.S., & Fibrianto, K. (2020). Optimization of brewing time and temperature for caffeine and tannin levels in dampit coffee leaf tea of Robusta (Coffea canephora) and liberica (Coffea liberica). Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 14, 58-68.
Heredia-Arroyo, T., Wei, W., & Hu, B. (2010). Oil Accumulation via heterotrophic/mixotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. Applied biochemistry and Biotechnology, 162(7), 1978-1995.
Hudeckova, H., Neureiter, M., Obruca, S., Fruhauf, S., & Marova, I. (2018). Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into lactic acid. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 66(4), 306-312.
Isleten-Hosoglu, M., Gultepe, I., & Elibol, M. (2012). Optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for biomass and lipid production by Chlorella saccharophila under heterotrophic condition and development of Nile red Fluorescence based method for quantification of its neutral lipid content. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 61, 11-19.
Jardine, T.D., Galloway, A.W.E., & Kainz, M.J., (2020). Unlocking the power of fatty acids as dietary tracers and metabolic signals in fishes and aquatic invertebrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1804), 20190639.
Jooste, T., García-Aparicio, M.P., Brienzo, M., van Zyl, W.H., & Görgens, J.F. (2013). Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Spent Coffee Ground. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 169(8), 2248–2262.
Kaur, N., Chugh, V., & Gupta, A.K. (2014). Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods-a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(10), 2289- 2303.
Krzemin´ska, I., Piasecka, A., Nosalewicz, A. Simionato, D., & Wawrzykowski, J. (2015). Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities. Bioresource Technology, 196, 72-77.
Lizzul, A.M., Lekuona-Amundarain, A., Purton, S., & Campos, L.C. (2018). Characterization of Chlorella sorokiniana, UTEX1230. Biology, 7(2), 25.
Melo, R.G., de Andrade, A.F., Bezerra, R.P., Correia, D.S., de Souza, V.C., Brasileiro-Vidal, A.C., ... Porto, A.L.F. (2018). Chlorella vulgaris mixotrophic growth enhanced biomass productivity and reduced toxicity from agro-industrial by-products. Chemosphere, 204, 344-350.
Mussatto, S.I., Ballesteros, L.F., Martins, S., & Teixeira, J.A. (2011). Extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds. Separation and Purification Technology, 83, 173-179.
Ötleo, S., & Pir, R. (2001). Fatty acid composition of Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae species. Journal of AOAC International, 84(6), 1708-1714.
Phirulpawadee, J. (2016). Effect of cultivation modes on growth and biomass productivity of Chiorella sp. isolated from Moo Bay, Chanthaburi province. Special Problem in Marine Technology, Faculty of Marine Technology, Burapha University.
Ratha, S.K., Rao, P.H., Govindaswamy, K., Jaswin, R.S., Lakshmidevi, R., Bhaskar, S., & Chinnasamy, S. (2016). A rapid and reliable method for estimating microalgal biomass using a moisture analyzer. Journal of Applied Phycology, 28(3), 1725-1734.
Ratomski, P., & Hawrot-Paw, M. (2021). Production of Chlorella vulgaris biomass in tubular photobioreactors during different culture conditions. Applied Sciences, 11(7), 3106.
Rios, L.F., da Silva Soares, C., Tasić, M.B., Wolf Maciel, M.R., & Filho, R.M. (2016). Cultivation of three microalgae strains under mixotrophic conditions for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 50, 409-414.
Roleda, M.Y., Slocombe, S.P., Leakey, R.J., Day, J.G., Bell, E.M., & Stanley, M.S. (2013). Effect of temperature and nutrient regimes on biomass and lipid production by six oleaginous microalgae in batch culture employing a two-phase cultivation strategy. Bioresource Technology, 129, 439-449.
Scully, D.S., Jaiswal, A.K., & Abu-Ghannam, N. (2016). An investigation into spent coffee waste as a renewable source of bioactive compounds and industrially important sugars. Bioengineering, 3(4), 33.
Silaban, A., Bai, R., Gutierrez-Wing, M.T., Negulescu, I.I., & Rusch, K.A. (2014). Effect of organic carbon, C:N ratio and light on the growth and lipid productivity of microalgae/cyanobacteria coculture. Engineering in Life Sciences, 14(1), 47-56.
Silkina, A., Ginnever, N.E., Fernandes, F., & FuentesGrünewald, C. (2019). Large-scale waste bio-remedia using microalgae cultivation as a platform. Energies, 12(14), 2772.
Sime, W., Kasirajan, R., Latebo, S., Abera, M., Mohammed, A., Seraw, E., & Awoke, W. (2017). Coffee husk highly available in Ethiopia as an alternative source for biofuel production. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 8(7), 1874-1880.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.