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Gluten-free foods are alternative products for consumers who have wheat gluten allergies, a symptom of celiac disease. However, replacing wheat with gluten-free flour usually results in the loss of some quality attributes of products. Hydrocolloids are widely used to improve the characteristics of gluten-free products. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to analyze the effect of hydrocolloids, including xanthan gum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), on the physical and sensory properties of gluten-free yeast doughnuts. The flour base of gluten-free doughnuts contained jasmine rice flour, buckwheat flour, and corn flour at a weight ratio of 50:30:20, respectively. A face-centered central composite design with three hydrocolloids treated as independent variables was utilized to investigate their effects on the doughnuts’ physical and sensory characteristics. Each of the hydrocolloids was set at a concentration range of 0-1 g/100 g. Results revealed that adding xanthan gum improved the mass change, moisture content cohesiveness, and chewiness of gluten-free doughnuts. HPMC helped improve the volume change and moisture content, and CMC enhanced the texture of gluten-free doughnuts. The combination of the three hydrocolloids at weight ratios of 0.5:0.5:0.5 and 1:1:1 significantly improved gluten-free doughnuts compared with the control and commercial products as indicated by their sensory scores and microstructure (p<0.05).
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