Main Article Content
This cross-sectional descriptive survey determined cultural dimensions among dental students. First, questionnaires based on Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory were distributed to all accessible students at the Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, of whom 265 participants responded. In general, they showed high scores in uncertainty avoidance (UA), femininity and collectivism and focused on the long-term goal. However, they had low power distance (PD). In addition, the construct validity was evaluated using principal components factor analysis. The results of the 10-item questionnaire offered insights into the most relevant aspects of three culture dimensions: UA, male-female (MF) and long-term versus short-term goals (LS). These components were revealed logically with UA as the main component explaining 24% of the culture dimension, followed by MF and LS. To reinforce the mainstream learning theories, this study advocates that lessons with high learning barriers required instructional design and should be well-structured with a humanistic approach to address the high UA and femininity. Lessons must also respect the traditions and norms (long-term orientation). In conclusion, Hofstede's cultural dimension revealed the dental students’ learning style. Further, educators are encouraged to embrace cultural traits as humanistic and heuristic learning.
Alvarez, S., and Schultz, J. H. (2018). A communication-focused curriculum for dental students - An experiential training approach. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 1-6.
AUN-QA. (2016). AUN-QA models. ASEAN University Network-Quality Assurance (AUN-QA). [Online URL: http://aun-qa.org/] accessed on August 29, 2020.
Baron-Cohen, S. (2011). Zero Degrees of Empathy: A New Theory of Human Cruelty, London: Allen Lane Publishing, pp. 127.
Betancourt, J. R. (2003). Cross-cultural medical education: conceptual approaches and frameworks for evaluation. Academic Medicine, 78(6), 560-569.
Bissessar, C. (2018). An application of Hofstede’s cultural dimension among female educational leaders. Education Sciences, 8(2), 77.
Buriyameathagul, K. (2013). Characteristics of culture in Thai society and virtual communities. Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences Humanities, and Arts, 13(2), 207-270.
Carey, J. A., Madill, A., and Manogue, M. (2010). Communications skills in dental education: a systematic research review. European Journal of Dental Education, 14(2), 69-78.
Chaiwattanaporn, S., and Banchapattanasakda, C. (2006). Perceptions of employees towards Thai manager’s management style. International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, 24(3), 95-100.
Chambers, D. (1993). Toward a competency-based curriculum. Journal of Dental Education, 57(11), 790-793.
Chamchong, P. (2020). How cultural and organizational conditions impact on policy entrepreneurship: evidence from Thailand. Journal of Asian Public Policy, 13(1), 79-93.
Cheston, C. C., Flickinger, T. E., and Chisolm, M. S. (2013). Social media use in medical education: a systematic review. Academic Medicine, 88(6), 893-901.
Chuenjitwongsa, S., Bullock, A. D., and Oliver, R. G. (2018a). Roles and competences for educators of undergraduate dental students: a discussion paper. European Journal of Dental Education, 22(1), 47-56.
Chuenjitwongsa, S., Oliver, R. G., and Bullock, A. D. (2018b). Developing educators of European undergraduate dental students: towards an agreed curriculum. European Journal of Dental Education, 22(3), 179-191.
Chuenjitwongsa, S., Poolthong, S., Bullock, A. D., and Oliver, R. G. (2017). Developing common competencies for Southeast Asian general dental practitioners. Journal of Dental Education, 81(9), 1114-1123.
Cook, D. A., Durning, S. J., Sherbino, J., and Gruppen, L. D. (2019). Management reasoning: implications for health professions educators and a research agenda. Academic Medicine, 94(9), 1310-1316.
Curley, A. W., and Peltier, B. (2014). Standard of care: the legal view. The Journal of the American College Dentists, 81(1), 53-58.
Dorfman, W., and Howell, P. (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Advances in International Comparative Management, 3, 127-150.
Dennick, R. (2012). Twelve tips for incorporating educational theory into teaching practices. Medical Teacher, 34(8), 618-624.
ERASMUS. (2014). ERASMUS+ Funding Program. European Community. [Online URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/education/set-projects-education-and-training/erasmus-funding-programme_en] accessed on August 29, 2020.
Ertmer, P. A., and Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71.
European Higher Education Area. (2018). European higher education area and Bologna process. [Online URL: http://www.ehea.info/page-home-page] accessed on August 29, 2020.
Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University. (2017). History of the faculty. Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University. [Online URL: http://www.dent.chula.ac.th/dent_en/history.php] accessed on December 12, 2020.
Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University. (2018). About our dental school. Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University. [Online URL: http://www.dt.mahidol.ac.th/en/about-us/about-our-dental-school/] accessed on December 12, 2020.
Fernandez, D. R., Carlson, D. S., Stepina, L. P., and Nicholson, J. D. (1997). Hofstede’s country classification 25 years later. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(1), 43-54.
Gwee, M. C. E. (2008). Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 24(3), S14-S22.
Henzi, D., Davis, E., Jasinevicius, R., and Hendricson, W. (2007). In the students’ own words: what are the strengths and weaknesses of the dental school curriculum? Journal of Dental Education, 71(5), 632-645.
Hofstede, G. (1986). Cultural differences in teaching and learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(3), 301-320.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences : Comparing Values , Behaviours , Institutions , and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd, California: Sage Publications, pp. 24-67.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 1-26.
Hofstede, G. (2013). Replicating and extending cross-national value studies: rewards and pitfalls – an example from middle east studies. AIB Insights, 13(2), 5-7.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 3rd, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 34-185.
Holmes, H., Tangtongtavy, S., and Tomizawa, R. (1995). Working with the Thais: A Guide to Managing in Thailand, Bangkok: White Lotus, pp. 61-67.
Itaya, L. E., Chambers, D. W., and King, P. A. (2008). Analyzing the influence of admissions criteria and cultural norms on success in an international dental studies program. Journal of Dental Education, 72(3), 317-328.
Jordan, A., Carlile, O., and Stack, A. (2008). Approaches to Learning: A Guide for Educators, Glasgow: Open University Press, pp. 6-95.
Karagiorgi, Y., and Symeou, L. (2005). Translating constructivism into instructional design: potential and limitations. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 8(1), 17-27.
Lin, C. S., Wu, S. Y., and Yi, C. A. (2017). Association between anxiety and pain in dental treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Dental Research, 96(2), 153-162.
Lin, H., and Ho, W. (2018). Cultural effects on use of online social media for health-related information acquisition and sharing in Taiwan. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 34(11), 1063-1076.
MIDS. (2018). [Online URL: https://dt.mahidol.ac.th/en/mahidol-international-dental-school/] accessed on December 12, 2020.
Martimianakis, M., Tilburt, J., Michalec, B., and Hafferty, F. (2020). Myths and social structure: the unbearable necessity of mythology in medical education. Medical Education, 54(1), 15-21.
Minkov, M. (2007). What makes us different and similar: A new interpretation of the World Values Survey and other cross-cultural data, Sofia, Bulgaria: Klasika y Stil Publishing House, pp. 10-89.
Moore, R. (2018). Psychosocial student functioning in comprehensive dental clinic education: a qualitative study. European Journal of Dental Education, 22(3), e479-e487.
Morrow, G., Rothwell, C., Burford, B., and Illing, J. (2013). Cultural dimensions in the transition of overseas medical graduates to the UK workplace. Medical Teacher, 35(10), e1537-e1545.
Niratpattanasai, K. (2004). Bridging the Gap, Bangkok: Phongwarin Printing Ltd., pp. 8-10.
Pimpa, N. (2012). Amazing Thailand: organizational culture in the Thai public sector. International Business Research, 5(11), 35-42.
Preece, J, J. (1998). Empathic communities: reaching out across the Web. Interactions, 5(2), 32-43.
Preece, J. J., and Ghozati, K. (2001). Observations and explorations of empathy online. In The Internet and Health Communication: Experience and Expectations (Rice R. E. and Katz J. E., eds.), pp. 237-260. California: SAGE Publications Inc.
Rada, R. E. (2016). Special care dentistry and the standard of care. Special Care in Dentistry, 36(4), 179-180.
Sangkapreecha, T., and Sangkapreecha, P. (2012). Online information resources: Thai students’ research in the digital culture. Journal of Population and Social Studies, 20(2), 55-81.
Sarhan, N. M., Alrawabdeh, W., and Istaiteyeh, R. M. S. (2015). Masculinity and femininity cultural value and service quality. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 13(1), 283-296.
Straub, D., Boudreau, M., and Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13, 380-427.
Sweet, J., Wilson, J., and Pugsley, L. (2008). Chairside teaching and the perceptions of dental teachers in the UK. British Dental Journal, 205(10), 565-569.
Wu, M. Y. (2006). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions 30 years later: a study of Taiwan and the United States. Intercultural Communication Studies, 15(1), 33-42.