Proximate composition and in vitro analysis of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Padina boryana Thivy

Main Article Content

Eldrin D. L. R. Arguelles
Arsenia B. Sapin


The chemical composition as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the brown seaweed, Padina boryana Thivy from Catanauan, Quezon were investigated. The seaweed contain high concentration of carbohydrates (40.81 ± 0.49%), ash (21.80 ± 0.33%) and protein (18.03 ± 0.23% on dry basis). Also, P. boryana has a total phenolic content of 1.40 ± 0.02 mg GAE g-1. Antioxidant efficiency of P. boryana are characterized by having potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity and high copper reducion capacity with IC50 value of 31.2 μg GAE ml-1 and 11.43 μg GAE ml-1 respectively, more effective than ascorbic acid (control). The seaweed extract exhibited potent antibacterial activities against bactetrial pathogen such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC = 125 μg ml-1), Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 125 μg ml-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 250 μg ml-1), and Aeromonas hydrophila (MIC = 250 μg ml-1). The current investigation is a pioneering study in the Philippines that shows the potential of P. boryana as potential source of bioactive substances that can be use for pharmaceutical and food industries.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Biological sciences


Al-Enazi, N. F., Awad, A. S., Zain, M. E., and S. E. Alqasuomi. (2018). Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Laurencia catarinensis, Laurencia majuscula and Padina pavonica extracts. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 26(1), 44-52.

Alghazeer, R., Whida, F., Abduelrhman, E., Gammoudi, F., and Azwai, S. (2013). Screening of antibacterial activity in marine green, red and brown macroalgae from the western coast of Libya. Natural Science, 5(1), 7-14.

Alpinar, K., Özyurek, M., Kolak, U., Guclu, K., Aras, Ç., Altun, M., Celik, S. E., Berker, K. I., Bektasoglu, B., and Ampal, R. (2009). Antioxidant capacities of some food plants wildly grown in Ayvalik of Turkey. Food Science Technology Research, 15(1), 59-64.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R. (2018). Proximate analysis, antibacterial activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of a green microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) Brébisson. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 20(1), 150-158.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R. (2020). Evaluation of nutritional composition and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Codium intricatum Okamura from Ilocos Norte (Philippines). Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(3), 375-382.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R. (2021). Biochemical composition and bioactive properties of Chlorella minutissima (Chm1) as a potential source of chemical compounds for nutritional feed supplement and disease control in aquaculture. Current Applied Science and Technology, 21(1), 65-77.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., and Sapin, A. B. (2020a). Bioactive properties of Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh (Fucales, Ochrophyta) and its potential as source of skin-lightening active ingredient for cosmetic application. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 10(7), 51-58.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., and Sapin, A. B. (2020b). Bioprospecting of Turbinaria ornata (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) for cosmetic application: antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibition, and antibacterial activities. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 26(2), 30-41.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., and Sapin, A. B. (2020c). In vitro antioxidant, alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antibacterial properties of Turbinaria decurrens Bory (Sargassaceae, Ochrophyta). Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 25(3), 1-9.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., Laurena, A. C., Martinez-Goss, M. R., and Monsalud, R. G. (2017). Antibacterial activity, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of a green microalga Desmodesmus sp. (U-AU2) from Los Baños, Laguna (Philippines). Journal of Nature Studies, 16(2), 1-13.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., Laurena, A. C., Monsalud R. G., and Martinez-Goss, M. R. (2018). Fatty acid profile and fuel-derived physico-chemical properties of biodiesel obtained from an indigenous green microalga, Desmodesmus sp. (I-AU1), as a potential source of renewable lipid and high-quality biodiesel. Journal of Applied Phycology, 30, 411-419.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., Laurena, A. C., Monsalud, R. G., and Martinez-Goss, M. R. (2019a). High lipid and protein-producing epilithic microalga, Desmodesmus sp. (U-AU2): a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel and animal feed production. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 44(2), 13-23.

Arguelles, E. D. L. R., Monsalud, R. G., and Sapin, A. B. (2019b). Chemical composition and In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh from Lobo, Batangas, Philippines. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 25(1), 112-122.

Balasundari, V. K., Jeyashakila, R., Velayathum, P., Masilan, K., and Reshma, R. (2017). Proximate and mineral composition of brown seaweed from Gulf of Mannar. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 5(5), 106-112.

Boonchum, W., Peerapornpisal, Y., Kanjanapothi, D., Pekkoh, J., Pumas, C., Jamjai, U., Amornlerdpison, D., Noiraksar, T., and Vacharapiyasophon, P. (2011). Antioxidant activity of some seaweed from the Gulf of Thailand. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13(1), 95-99.

Chew, Y. L., Lim, Y. Y., Omar, M., and Khoo, K. S. (2008). Antioxidant activity of three edible seaweeds from two areas in South East Asia. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(6), 1067-1072.

Chia, Y. Y., Kanthimathi, M. S., Rajarajeswaran, J., Khoo, K. S., and Cheng, H. M. (2015). Antioxidant, antiproliferative, genotoxic and cytoprotective effects of the methanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica on human breast adenocarcinoma and embryonic fibroblast cell lines. Frontiers in Life Science, 8(4), 411-418.

Cox, S., Abu-Ghannam, N., and Gupta, S. (2010). An assessment of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of six species of edible Irish seaweeds. International Food Research Journal, 17, 205-220.

Fu, C. W. F., Ho, C. W., Yong, W. T. L., Abas, F., and Tan, C. P. (2015). Effects of phenolic antioxidants extraction from four selected seaweeds obtained from Sabah. PeerJ PrePrints, 3, 1-15.

Gao, L., Wang, S., Oomah, B. D., and Mazza, G. (2002). Wheat quality: antioxidant activity of wheat millstreams. In Wheat Quality Elucidation (Ng, P., and Wrigley, C. W., eds.) pp. 219-233. St. Paul, Minnesota: AACC International.

Goecke, F., Escobar, M., and Collantes, G. (2012). Chemical composition of Padina fernandeziana (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotales) from Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile. Revista Latinoamericana de Biotecnologia Ambiental y Algal, 3(2), 95-104.

Guiry, M. D., and Guiry, G. M. (2020). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication. Galway: National University of Ireland. [Online URL :] accessed on May 9, 2020.

Horwitz, W., and Latimer, G. W. (2011). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th, Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International.

Jayawardena, T. U., Wang, L., Sanjeewa, K. K. A., Kang, S. I., Lee, J. S., and Jeon, Y. J. (2020). Antioxidant potential of sulfated polysaccharides from Padina boryana; protective effect against oxidative stress in In vitro and In vivo zebrafish model. Marine Drugs, 18(4), 212.

Jiménez, J. T., O’Connell, S., Lyons, H., Bradley, B., and Hall, M. (2010). Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and tyrosinase inhibition activities of acetone extract of Ascophyllum nodosum. Chemical Papers, 64(4), 434-442.

Karawita, R., Siriwardhana, N., Lee, K. W., Heo, M. S., Yeo, I. K., and Lee, Y. D. (2005). Reactive oxygen species scavenging, metal chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties of different solvent fractions from Hizikia fusiformis. European Food Research and Technology, 220(3-4), 363-371.

Kim, B., Kim, M. S., Park, S. K., Ko, S. C., Eom, S. H., Jung, W. K., and Kim, Y. M. (2018). Antibacterial effect of Ishige okamurae extract against cutaneous bacterial pathogens and its synergistic antibacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21, 18.

Machu, L., Misurcova, L., Vavra Ambrozova, J., Orsavova, J., Mlcek, J., Sochor, J., and Jurikova, T. (2015). Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products. Molecules, 20(1), 1118-1133.

Marinho-Soriano, E., Fonseca, P. C., Carneiro, M. A. A., and Moreira, W. S. C. (2006). Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of two tropical seaweeds. Bioresource Technology, 97(18), 2402-2406.

Matanjun, P., Mohamed, S., Mustapha, N. M., and Muhammad, K. (2008). Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. Journal of Applied Phycology, 21(1), 75-80.

Mwalugha, M. H., Wakibia, J. G., Kenji, G. M., and Mwasaru, M. A. (2015). Chemical composition of common seaweeds from the Kenya coast. Journal of Food Research, 4(6), 28-38.

Nagayama, K., Iwamura, Y., Shibata, T., Hirayama, I., and Nakamura, T. (2002). Bactericidal activity of phlorotannins from the brown alga Ecklonia kurome. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 50(6), 889-893.

Novaczek, I., and Athy, A. (2001). Sea vegetable recipes for the Pacific Islands, Suva, Fiji Islands: University of the South Pacific, pp. 1-36.

Nuñez Selles, A., Castro, H. T. V., Aguero, J. A., Gonzalez, J. G., Naddeo, F., De Simone, F., and Rastrelli, L. (2002). Isolation and quantitative analysis of phenolic antioxidants, free sugars, and polyols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous decoction used in Cuba as a nutritional supplement. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 50(4), 762-766.

Pangestuti, R., and Kim, S. K. (2011). Biological activities and health benefit effects of natural pigments derived from marine algae. Journal of Functional Foods. 3(4), 255-266.

Ribeiro, S. M. R., Barbosa, L. C. A., Queiroz, J. H., Knödler, M., and Schieber, A. (2008). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Brazilian mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties. Food Chemistry, 110(3), 620-626.

Robledo, D., and Pelegrin, Y. F. (1997). Chemical and mineral composition of six potentially edible seaweed species of Yucatán. Botanica Marina, 40, 301-306.

Salosso, Y., Aisiah, S., Toruan, L. N. L., and Pasaribu, W. (2020). Nutrient content, active compound, and antibacterial activity of Padina australis against Aeromonas hydropilla. Pharmacognosy Journal, 12(4), 771-776.

Sameeh, M. Y., Mohamed, A. A., and Elazzazy, A. M. (2016). Polyphenolic contents and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Padina boryana Thivy and Enteromorpha sp marine algae. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(9), 87-92.

Shanmuganathan, B., and Devi, K. P. (2016). Evaluation of the nutritional profile and antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities of Padina gymnospora (Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology, 51(4), 482-490.

Sivaramakrishnan, T., Swain, S., Saravanan, K., Kiruba, S. R., Roy, S. D., Biswas, L., and Shalini, B. (2017). In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity and chemometric approach to reveal their variability in green macroalgae from South Andaman Coast of India. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17(3), 639-648.

Srikong, W., Bovornreungroj, N., Mittraparparthorn, P., and Bovornreungroj, P. (2017). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of differential solvent extractions from the green seaweed Ulva intestinalis. ScienceAsia, 43(2), 88-95.

Tenorio-Rodriguez, P. A., Murillo-Alvarez, J. I., Campa-Cordova, A. I., and Angulo, C. (2017). Antioxidant screening and phenolic content of ethanol extracts of selected Baja California Peninsula macroalgae. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(2), 422-429.

Trono, G. C. Jt. (1997). Field Guide and Atlas of the Seaweed Resources of the Philippines, 1st, Makati City, Manila: Bookmark Inc., pp. 27-303.

Vijayabaskar, P., and Shiyamala, V. (2011). Antibacterial activities of brown marine algae (Sargassum wightii and Turbinaria ornata) from the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve. Advances in Biological Research, 5(2), 99-102.

Wang, T., Jónsdóttir, R., and Ólafsdóttir, G. (2009). Total phenolic compounds, radical scavenging and metal chelation of extracts from Icelandic seaweeds. Food Chemistry, 116(1), 240-248.

Wong, K. H., and Cheung, P. C. K. (2000). Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweeds Part I: proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physico-chemical properties. Food Chemistry, 71(4), 475-482.

Yaich, H., Garna, H., Besbes, S., Paquot, M., Blecker, C., and Attia, H. (2011). Chemical composition and functional properties of Ulva lactuca seaweed collected in Tunisia. Food Chemistry, 128(4), 895-901.

Yuan, Y., Zhang, J., Fan, J., Clark, J., Shen, P., Li, Y., and Zhang, C. (2018). Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four economic brown macroalgae species and evaluation of their antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and tyrosinase. Food Research International, 113, 288-297.