Development and evaluation of a fast dissolving effervescent microneedles patch for transdermal application

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Phuvamin Suriyaamporn
Praneet Opanasopit
Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
Worranan Rangsimawong


The limitation of dissolving microneedles is the lengthy period of time to completely dissolve into the skin, so fast dissolving effervescent microneedles (Ef-MNs) have been developed. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the Ef-MNs as a device for transdermal application. The Ef-MNs were fabricated by a nonaqueous micromolding technique using poly (methyl vinyl ether/maleic acid) copolymers (GA), sodium bicarbonate, and various organic acids (citric acid, ascorbic acid, tartaric acid). The physical properties of the Ef-MNs were determined. The penetration depth was tested on neonatal porcine skin. The moisture determination of the Ef-MNs was investigated. For the results, all the formulations showed conical microneedles with 675.26 μm-height and 391.21 μm-width. In the mechanical strength, the Ef-MNs fabricated from ascorbic acid had a significantly higher resistance force than the others. As a result, all the Ef-MNs could be completely inserted into the skin. The dissolution study showed that the Ef-MNs fabricated from ascorbic acid were completely dissolved within 15 minutes and provided an appropriate moisture uptake and content. In conclusion, the optimal Ef-MNs were fabricated from 30% w/w of GA, 5% w/w of sodium bicarbonate, 5% w/w of ascorbic acid, and 60% w/w of ethanol, thus indicating an appropriate device for transdermal application.


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Suriyaamporn, P., Opanasopit, P., Ngawhirunpat, T., & Rangsimawong, W. (2022). Development and evaluation of a fast dissolving effervescent microneedles patch for transdermal application. Science, Engineering and Health Studies, 16, 22050010.
Health sciences


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