Physical stability of Pickering nanoemulsions stabilized with chitosan–octenyl succinic anhydride-modified starch polyelectrolyte complex

Main Article Content

Kun Sodalee
Satit Puttipipatkhachorn


This study aimed to investigate the effect of various parameters, including the molar charge ratio of chitosan–OSA-modified starch, starch-to-oil ratio, and preparation methods on the physical stability of Pickering nanoemulsions stabilized with chitosan–octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch polyelectrolyte complex (PEC). The nanoemulsions were prepared via ultrasonication using two different methods, namely, the PEC and layer-by-layer (LBL) methods. The investigated physical properties included appearance, droplet size, size distribution, and zeta potential of the nanoemulsions. The results indicated that at a molar charge ratio of 10:1, the nanoemulsions with chitosanOSA-modified starch PECs had better physical stability. The droplet size, size distribution, and zeta potential were not statistically changed after 4 weeks of storage at 30 ± 2°C. At a lower chitosan–OSA-modified starch ratio, the LBL method provided better physically stable nanoemulsions than the PEC method. However, at a higher chitosan–OSA-modified starch ratio, both methods gave the nanoemulsions with comparable stability. The higher physical stability was attributable to the PEC of chitosan with OSA-modified starch at the o/w interface. In conclusion, the Pickering nanoemulsions stabilized with chitosanOSA-modified starch PECs are a promising emulsion template for the encapsulation of lipophilic drugs.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sodalee, K., & Puttipipatkhachorn, S. (2022). Physical stability of Pickering nanoemulsions stabilized with chitosan–octenyl succinic anhydride-modified starch polyelectrolyte complex. Science, Engineering and Health Studies, 16, 22050012.
Health sciences


Abbas, S., Bashari, M., Akhtar, W., Li, W. W., and Zhang, X. (2014). Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted curcumin nanoemulsions stabilized by OSA-modified starch. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 21(4), 1265-1274.

Abbas, S., Karangwa, E., Bashari, M., Hayat, K., Hong, X., Sharif, H. R., and Zhang, X. (2015). Fabrication of polymeric nanocapsules from curcumin-loaded nanoemulsion templates by self-assembly. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 23, 81-92.

Albert, C., Beladjine, M., Tsapis, N., Fattal, E., Agnely, F., and Huang, N. (2019). Pickering emulsions: Preparation processes, key parameters governing their properties and potential for pharmaceutical applications. Journal of Controlled Release, 309, 302-332.

Bago Rodriguez, A. M., Binks, B. P., and Sekine, T. (2016). Novel stabilisation of emulsions by soft particles: Polyelectrolyte complexes. Faraday Discussions, 191, 255-285.

Berger, J., Reist, M., Mayer, J. M., Felt, O., and Gurny, R. (2004). Structure and interactions in chitosan hydrogels formed by complexation or aggregation for biomedical applications. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 57(1), 35-52.

Björkegren, S., Nordstierna, L., Törncrona, A., and Palmqvist, A. (2017). Hydrophilic and hydrophobic modifications of colloidal silica particles for Pickering emulsions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 487, 250-257.

Carvalho, A. G. S., Silva, V. M., and Hubinger, M. D. (2014). Microencapsulation by spray drying of emulsified green coffee oil with two-layered membranes. Food Research International, 61, 236-245.

Charoenthai, N., Sodalee, K., and Puttipipatkhachorn, S. (2022). Octenyl succinic anhydride starch and its polyelectrolyte complexes as stabilizers in Pickering emulsions. Pharmaceutical Science Asia, 49(5), 399-407.

Chevalier, Y., and Bolzinger, M. A. (2013). Emulsions stabilized with solid nanoparticles: Pickering emulsions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 439, 23-34.

Fang, S., Zhao, X., Liu, Y., Liang, X., and Yang, Y. (2019). Fabricating multilayer emulsions by using OSA starch and chitosan suitable for spray drying: Application in the encapsulation of β-carotene. Food Hydrocolloids, 93, 102-110.

Hu, Y. Q., Yin, S. W., Zhu, J. H., Qi, J. R., Guo, J., Wu, L. Y., Tang, C. H., Yang, X. Q. (2016). Fabrication and characterization of novel Pickering emulsions and Pickering high internal emulsions stabilized by gliadin colloidal particles. Food Hydrocolloids, 61, 300-310.

Jadhav, N. V., Pawar, M. A., and Vavia, P. R. (2022). Pickering dry emulsion system for improved oral delivery of fenofibrate. AAPS PharmSciTech, 23(6), 168.

Mathapa, B. G., and Paunov, V. N. (2013). Cyclodextrin stabilised emulsions and cyclodextrinosomes. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15(41), 17903-17914.

Nan, F., Wu, J., Qi, F., Liu, Y., Ngai, T., and Ma, G. (2014). Uniform chitosan-coated alginate particles as emulsifiers for preparation of stable Pickering emulsions with stimulus dependence. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 456, 246-252.

Peito, S., Peixoto, D., Ferreira-Faria, I., Margarida Martins, A., Margarida Ribeiro, H., Veiga, F., Marto, J., and Cláudia Paiva-Santos, A. (2022). Nano- and microparticle-stabilized Pickering emulsions designed for topical therapeutics and cosmetic applications. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 615, 121455.

Preetz, C., Rübe, A., Reiche, I., Hause, G., and Mäder, K. (2008). Preparation and characterization of biocompatible oil-loaded polyelectrolyte nanocapsules. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 4(2), 106-114.

Saari, H., Fuentes, C., Sjöö, M., Rayner, M., and Wahlgren, M. (2017). Production of starch nanoparticles by dissolution and non-solvent precipitation for use in food-grade Pickering emulsions. Carbohydrate Polymers, 157, 558-566.

Shen, Z., Augustin, M. A., Sanguansri, L., and Cheng, L. J. (2010). Oxidative stability of microencapsulated fish oil powders stabilized by blends of chitosan, modified starch, and glucose. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(7), 4487-4493.

Sodalee, K., Limwikrant, W., Pongjanyakul, T., Ueda, K., Higashi, K., Moribe, K., and Puttipipatkhachorn, S. (2022). Preparation of redispersible dry nanoemulsion using chitosan-octenyl succinic anhydride starch polyelectrolyte complex as stabilizer. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 73, 103433.

Wang, X. Y., and Heuzey, M. C. (2016). Chitosan-based conventional and Pickering emulsions with long-term stability. Langmuir, 32(4), 929-936.

Wang, Z., Dai, B., Tang, X., Che, Z., Hu, F., Shen, C., Wu, W., Shen, B., and Yuan, H. (2022). Fabrication and in vitro/vivo evaluation of drug nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion for oral delivery of quercetin. Pharmaceutics, 14(5), 897.

Yuan, D. B., Hu Y. Q., Zeng, T., Yin, S. W., Tang, C. H., and Yang, X. Q. (217). Development of stable Pickering emulsions/oil powders and Pickering HIPEs stabilized by gliadin/chitosan complex particles. Food and Function, 8(6), 2220-2230.

Yue, Y. K., Yang, Z., Xing, J. J., Guo, X. N., and Zhu, K. X. (2022). Fabrication and stabilization mechanisms of Pickering emulsions based on gliadin/arabinoxylan complexes. Food Chemistry, 393, 133458.