Nanosecond latency drum kit

Main Article Content

Kundan Manohar Jadhav
Abhishek Kumar


Music is incomplete without the beats of the drum. With the advancement in time, music is getting more electronic than acoustic because of its portable feature. Electronics drums are popular musical instruments for producing music and beats with ease. The electronics drum kit is very easy to set up and tune but, and it does not produce heavy noise like acoustic drum kits. The modern music instruments are based on the musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) protocol easier to connect for producing music with another electronic instrument. A musical instrument compatible with MIDI can be connected to the computer system and can produce high-quality sound. In this work, a prototype of a digital drum kit was developed. A piezo sensor at input sensed the pressure, followed by an analog to digital converter generate binary value for the processing based on MIDI protocol. The combination of digital to analog converter and I2S module created corresponding sound. The static delay due to the component experience latency in milliseconds between action and sound. Action and sound get a millisecond-long static lag due to component latency. In this work we tried to minimize latency to nanosecond.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Manohar Jadhav, K., & Kumar, A. (2022). Nanosecond latency drum kit. Science, Engineering and Health Studies, 16, 22040005.


Askenfelt, A., and Jansson, E. (1987). From touch to string vibrations—the initial course of the piano tone. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 81(S1), S61.

Bianchi, V, Bassoli, M., and De Munari, I. (2020). Comparison of FPGA and Microcontroller Implementations of an Innovative Method for Error Magnitude Evaluation in Reed-Solomon Codes. Electronics, 9(1), 89.

Dinulică, F., Bucur, V., Albu, C. T., Vasilescu, M. M., Curtu, A. L., and Nicolescu, N. V. (2021). Relevant phenotypic descriptors of the resonance Norway spruce standing trees for the acoustical quality of wood for musical instruments. European Journal of Forest Research, 140, 105-125.

Friberg, A., and Sundberg, J. (1995). Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 98(5), 2524-2531.

Fujii, S., Hirashima, M., Kudo, K., Ohtsuki, T., Nakamura, Y., and Oda, S. (2011). Synchronization error of drum kit playing with a metronome at different tempi by professional drummers. Music Perception, 28(5), 491-503.

Gupta, A. K., Raman, A., Kumar, N., and Ranjan, R. (2020). Design and implementation of high-speed universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter (UART). In 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, pp. 295-300. Noida, India.

Huber, D. M. (2007). The MIDI Manual: A Practical Guide to MIDI in the Project Studio, 3rd, Waltham, MA: Focal Press, pp. 200-250.

Jack, R. H., Mehrabi, A., Stockman, T., and McPherson, A. (2018). Action-sound latency and the perceived quality of digital musical instruments: Comparing professional percussionists and amateur musicians. Music Perception, 36(1), 109-128.

Jack, R. H., Stockman, T., and McPherson, A. (2016). Effect of latency on performer interaction and subjective quality assessment of a digital musical instrument. In Proceedings of the Audio Mostly, pp. 116-123. Norrköping, Sweden.

Jadhao, K. M., and Patel, G. S. (2020). Hardware architecture of digital drum kit using FPGA. In IEEE International Conference on Advent Trends in Multidisciplinary Research and Innovation, pp. 1-4. Buldhana, India.

Liu, Q., Ba, S., Wu, L., Huang, J., and Li, H. (2018). Virtual dulcimer auxiliary teaching system based on musical instrument digital interface. In Proceeding of International Symposium on Educational Technology, pp. 82-86. Osaka, Japan.

Magnusson, T., and Mendieta, E. H. (2007). The acoustic, the digital and the body: A survey on musical instruments. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, pp. 94-99. New York, USA.

Martin, A. J., and Nystrom, M. (2006). Asynchronous techniques for system-on-chip design. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94(6), 1089-1120.

Saleh, R., Wilton, S., Mirabbasi, S., Hu, A., Greenstreet, M., Lemieux, G., and Ivanov, A. (2006). System-on-chip: Reuse and integration. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94(6), 1050-1069.

Takemura, K., Yoshimi, A., Nishikawa, H., Tanaka, A., and Douseki, T. (2015). Batteryless 900-μs-latency FM transmitter powered by piezoelectric generator for wireless electronic drums. In Proceeding of the IEEE Sensors, pp. 1-4. Busan, South Korea.

Vieira, R., and Schiavoni, F. (2020). Fliperama: An affordable Arduino based MIDI controller. In Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, pp. 375-379. Birmingham, UK.

Wang, L., Noordanus, E., and van Opstal, A. J. (2021). on a Estimating multiple latencies in the auditory system from auditory steady-state responses single EEG channel. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 2150.

Wheeler, P. (2014). The Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI): The digital organ for organists and non-organists. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 135(4), 2245.

Wicaksono, I., and Paradiso, J. A. (2020, July). KnittedKeyboard: Digital knitting of electronic textile musical controllers. In Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, pp. 323-326. Birmingham, UK.

Williams, P., and Overholt, D. (2021). Design and evaluation of a digitally active drum. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 25(4), 783-795.

Wolf, W., Jerraya, A. A., and Martin, G. (2008). Multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) technology. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 27(10), 1701-1713.

Zhou, H., Zhou, J., and Chang, M. (2021). conFFTi: an FPGA music synthesizer (18-500 Final Report). Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University.