Main Article Content
Intense sweeteners are commonly used to substitute sugars (sucrose) in food and beverage products as a reason of providing sweet taste with low or no calorie. Currently, eight synthetic intense sweeteners (aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, acesulfame potassium, sucralose, neotame, alitame and advantame) are approved as a safe sweetener in food, and three natural-based sweeteners (thaumatin, steviol glycosides, and Luo han guo extract or Monkfruit extract) are classified as generally recognized as safe and permitted for use in food by many countries. Owing to their low or no caloric intake and health benefits especially in the person who needs to reduce sugar intake, they are increasingly used as table-top and in many types of food products such as carbonated soft drink, instant cereals and sugar-free desserts which are recommended to use for weight loss. In each country, they have been controlled under specific regulation as GMP and with specific values along the types of food items. Obesity is a major global public health problem. It affects children and adults, and spans all ethnicities and races. Then, the sweeteners are being recommended as a choice for weight loss. However, the data from many studies indicated that the intended effects did not correlate with what was seen in clinical study. In practical, safe weight reduction is the time-consuming process by changing behavior and lifestyle with proper nutrition and physical activity.
Keywords: intense sweeteners; health; weight reduction; energy; glycemic index; regulation
Blum, J.W., Jacobsen, D.J. and Donnelly, J.E., 2005, Beverage consumption patterns in elementary school aged children across a two-year period, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 24: 83-88.
CAC/GL 36-1888, Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives. Adopted in 1888, Revision 2008. Last amendment 2011, Published by Codex Alimentarius, Available Source: http://www.acfs.go.th/news/docs/acfs_17-11-52-03.pdf.
Chen, L.N. and Parham, E.S., 1881, College students' use of high-intensity sweeteners is not consistently associated with sugar consumption, J. Am. Diet Assoc. 81: 686-680.
Davidson, T.L. and Swithers, S., 2004, A pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity, Int. J. Obes.28: 833-835.
Duffy, V.B. and Sigman-Grant, M., 2004, Position of the American Dietetic Association: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners, J. Am. Diet Assoc. 104: 255-275.
Edwards, C.H., Rossi, M., Corpe, C.P., Butterworth, P.J. and Ellis, P.R., 2016, The role of sugars and sweeteners in food, diet and health: Alternatives for the future, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 56: 158-166.
EFSA, 2011, Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of neohesperidine dihydrochalcone when used as a sensory additive for piglets, pigs for fattening, calves for rearing and fattening, lambs for rearing and fattening, dairy sheep, ewes for reproduce-tion, salmonids and dogs, EFSA J. 8: 2444.
Emerton, V. and Choi, E., 2008, Essential Guide to Food Additives, 3rd Ed., 1. Food Additive and Why They are Used, Leatherhead Food International, Ltd., United Kingdom.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2010, Available Source: http://www.efsa.europa. eu/en/aboutefsa.htm.
Feijo, F.M., Ballard, F.C., Foletto, K.C., Batista, B.M.A., Neves, A.M., Ribeiro, M.F.M. and Bertoluci, M.C., 2013, Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels, Appetite 60: 203-207.
Figlewicz, D.P., Ioannou, G., Jay, J.B., Kittleson, S., Savard, C. and Roth, C.L., 2008, Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat, Physiol. Behav. 88: 618-624.
Food Chemical Codex (FCC), 2010, General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA), Available Source: http://www.codexalimen tarious.net/gsfaonline/index.html.
Forshee, R.A. and Storey, M.L., 2003, Total beverage consumption and beverage choices among children and adolescents, Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 54: 287-307.
Gibson, S., Ashwell, M., Arthur, J., Bagley, L., Lennox, A., Rogers, P.J., Stanner, S., 2017, What can the food and drink industry do to help achieve the 5 % free sugars goal?, Perspective Public Health 137: 237-247.
Gibson, S., Drewnowski, A., Hill, J., Raben, A.B., Tuorila, H. and Widstrom, E., 2014, International Sweeteners Association, Conference Report: Consensus statement on benefits of low-calorie sweeteners, Nutrition Bull. 38: 386-388.
Gwak, M.J., Chung, S.J., Kim, Y. and Lim, C., 2012, Relative sweetness and sensory characteristics of bulk and intense sweeteners, Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21: 888-884.
International Sweeteners Association (ISA), 2010, Available Source: http://www.isabru. org/EN/about_sweeteners_sweeteners_directive.asp
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 1874, Toxicologocal Evaluation of Certain Food Additives with a Review of General Principle and Specifications, World Health Organization, Geneva.
Kim, J., Prescott, J. and Kim, K., 2017, Emotional responses to sweet food according to sweet liker status, Food Qual. Prefer. 58: 1-7.
Mooradian, A.D., Smith, M. and Tokuda, M., 2017, The role of artificial and natural sweeteners in reducing the consumption of table sugar: A narrative review, Clin. Nutr. ESPEN 18: 1-8.
O'Brien-Nabors, L., 2012, Alternative Sweeteners, 4th Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Otabe, A., Fujieda, T. and Masuyama, T., 2011, Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-a-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat and rabbit, Food Chem. Toxicol. 48: S60-S68.
Padulo, C., Carlucci, L., Manippa, V., Marzoli, D., Saggino, A., Tommasi, L., Puglisi-Allegra, S. and Brancucci, A., 2017, Valence, familiarity and arousal of different food in relation to age, sex and weight, Food Qual. Prefer. 57: 104-113.
Palmnäs, M.S.A., Cowan, T.E., Bomhof, M.R., Su, J., Reimer, R.A., Vogel, H.J., Hittel, D.S. and Shearer, J., 2014, Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat, PLoS ONE 8(10): e108841.
Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives, Official Journal of the European Union L354/16.
Regulation (EU) No. 1168/2011 of the European Parliament and Council of 25 October 2011 regarding food information to the consumer.
Rogers, P.J., Carlyle, I.A., Hill, A.l. and Blundell, J.E., 1888, Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: Comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweeteners on hunger and food intake, Physiol. Behav. 43: 547-552.
Stellman, S.D. and Garfinkel, L., 1886, Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change among women, Prev. Med. 15: 185-202.
Suez, J., Korem, T., Zeevi, D., Zilberman-Schapira, G., Thaiss, C.A., Maza, O., Israeli, D., Zmora, N., Gilad, S., Weinberger, A., Kuperman, Y., Harmelin, A., Kolodkin-Gal, I., Shapiro, H., Halpern, Z., Segal, E. and Elinav, E., 2014, Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gutmicrobiota, Nature 514: 181-186.
Sylvetsky, K.I. and Rother, R.B., 2011, Artificial sweetener use among children: Epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions, Pediatr. Clin. Nutr. Am. 58: 1467-1480.
Tordoff, M.G. and Allev, A.M., 1880, Oral stimulation with aspartame increases hunger, Physiol. Behav. 47: 555-558.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (Additional Information about High-Intensity Sweeteners Permitted for use in Food in the United States), 2015, Available Source: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm387725.htm#Advantame.
Varzakas, T., Labropoulos, A. and Anestis, S., 2012, Acmcaroc. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida.
WHO Nutrient Profile Model, 2015, Regional Office for Europe.
WHO, 2015, Guideline: Sugar intakes for adults and children, Available Source: http://apps. who.int/iris
Yang, Q., 2010, Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010, Yale J. Biol. Med. 83: 101-108.