Main Article Content
The objective of this research was to study browning reduction treatments of rice bran extract (RBE) produced by subcritical water extraction (SW) followed by protease hydrolysis (PH), using commercial enzymes (Ultraflow® Max, SAN Super 360L, GC 147) and anti-browning agent (citric acid and sodium metabisulfite). The use of commercial enzymes to digest starch and sugar to eliminate the precursors in Maillard reaction before SW+PH showed that Ultraflow® Max followed by GC 147 hydrolysis resulted in the highest reduction of reducing sugar content and the lowest loss of protein content. The immersion of rice bran in both citric acid solution (0.5% w/v) and sodium metabisulfite (0.0007% w/v) reduced browning intensity of the extracts under SW+PH. The RBE obtained after SW+PH exhibited much greater protein content, antioxidant activities, as well as browning intensity, than those from individually SW. The suitable selected condition for obtaining the lower browning intensity was soaking rice bran in citric acid before SW+PE. Under this condition, the yield, protein content, total phenolic content, ABTS activity and FRAP of RBE powder were 46.8 %w/w, 26.8%, 29.4 mg gallic acid/g RBE powder, 14.1 mg Trolox/g RBE powder, and 8.4 mg FeSO4/g RBE powder, respectively. This research is beneficial to food and beverage industries, those applying RBE in foods that do not require brown color, such as bakery products, fried fish cake, snack, and juice.
สำนักงานเศรษฐกิจอุตสาหกรรม, ข้อมูลสถิติสำหรับการจัดทำดัชนีอุตสาหกรรม, แหล่งที่มา : http://www.oie.go.th/academic/statistics, 10 มกราคม 2562.
Adebiyi, A.O., Adebiyi, A.P., Ogawa, T. and Muramoto, K., 2009, Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from unfractionated rice bran protein hydrolysates, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 35-43.
AOAC, 2000, Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Ed., The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg.
Benzie, I.F. and Strain, J.J., 1996, The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay, Anal. Biochem. 239:70-76.
Cagdas, E. and Kumcuoglu, S., 2015, Effect of grape seed powder on oxidative stability of precooked chicken nuggets during frozen storage, J. Food Sci. Technol. 52: 2918-2925.
Dong, S., Wei, B., Chen, B., Mcclements, D.J. and Decker, E.A., 2011, Chemical and antioxidant properties of casein peptide and glucose Maillard reaction products in fish oil-in-water emulsions, J. Agric. Food Chem. 59: 13311-13317.
Lowry, O.L., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J., 1951, Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.
Loypimai, P., 2012, Total antioxidant capacity assessments in vitro, J. Sci. Technol. MSU. 31(2): 165-170.
Nelson, N., 1944, A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose, J. Biol. Chem. 153: 375-380.
Pantone, Find a PANTONE Color, Available Source: http://www.pantone.com/color-find er/609-XGC, July 7, 2019.
Sakac, M., Gyura, J., Mišan, A., Šereš, Z. and Dokić, L., 2012, Influence of pH and temperature on nonenzymatic browning reaction between affined C sugar and amino acids, Food Feed Res. 39: 103-109.
Sharma, S., Singh, R. and Rana, S., 2011, Bioactive Peptides: A review, Int. J. Bioautomation. 15: 223-250.
Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A, 1965, Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents, Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16: 144-158.
Supawong, S., 2018, Rice Bran Hydrolysates from Byproduct of Rice Bran Oil Industry: Browning Reduction, Antioxidant Activity and Quality Improvement in Frozen Fried Fish Cake, Doctoral Dissertation, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen.
Supawong, S., Park, J.W. and Thawornchin sombut, S., 2018, Controlling lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in frozen fried fish cake prepared with rice bran hydrolysate, J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol. 27: 885-899.
Thamnarathip, P., Jangchud, K., Nitisinprasert, S. and Vardhanabhuti, B., 2016, Identification of peptide molecular weight from rice bran protein hydrolysate with high antioxidant activity, J. Cereal Sci. 69: 329-335.
Wolfrom, M.L., Kashimura, N. and Horton, D., 1974, Factors affecting the Maillard browning reaction between sugars and amino acids, J. Agric. Food Chem. 22: 791-795.
Yin, Z., Wang, J., Gu, X., Gu, H. and Kang, W., 2012, Antioxidant and a-glucosidase inhibitory activity of red raspberry (Harrywaters) fruits in vitro, Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 6: 3118-3123.
Yoshimura, Y., Iijima, T., Watanabe, T. and Nakazawa, H., 1997, Antioxidative effect of Maillard reaction products using glucose glycine model system, J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 4106-4109.